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This resource page contains many examples of picture-and-word work sheets intended for use in speech-language pathology intervention.

The sheets were made in Microsoft Word, using copyright-free pictures from Microsoft Clip Art and Media and converted into portable document files (pdfs) with Adobe Acrobat.

The vocabulary represents (non-rhotic) Australian English pronunciation, and although most of the words and minimal pairs will 'work' in other dialects of English you may need to discard some. For example, pairs like saw-shore, and spa-star are minimal pairs in Australian English and in other non-rhotic varieties of English, but not in rhotic dialects such as Canadian, Irish, Scottish and most US 'Englishes'.

SLPs/SLTs and students are invited to use these worksheets and other resources when working with children with speech sound disorders. You are free to save them to your computer and to customize them to suit individual clients and to fit your service delivery model. Restrictions that apply to their use are stated in the copyright notice.

Please read this before downloading pdf or pptx files

Please avoid downloading the same file multiple times as it increases my bandwidth usage and drives up my costs. Choose a pdf or pptx file; download it once, and save it to a folder. If you find the free resources here useful, and would like to make your secure donation to the maintenance of this site, please click here, and then click on the DONATE BUTTON.

Long Words

Polysyllables 1

university nursery apartments escalator magician origami hospital tomato ambulance tambourine elephant W helicopter carnation Doberman photocopier spaghetti astronaut

Polysyllables 2

alphabet broccoli dinosaur Pentagon bicycle fire-extinguisher basketball satellite avocado dictionary casserole hammerhead volcano accordion chandelier calendar watermelon supermarket

Polysyllables 3

caterpillar tape-measure orchestra motorbike rattlesnake hippopotamus ballerina caravan electrician pineapple macramé hairdresser unicycle calculator Nefertiti octopus excavator balaclava

Polysyllables 4

computer geranium entertainer detergent zucchini vaccination synthesizer exclamation honeycomb rhinoceros letterbox cauliflower kookaburra potato cheeseburger butterfly locomotive Saturday

Polysyllables 5

grasshopper Australia saxophone cucumber President injury screwdriver wallaby karaoke nasturtium equestrian fire-engine photographer marshmallow noticeboard rehearsal aquarium cinema

Polysyllables 6

geography terminal manicure autograph accident harvester architect refrigerator family unicorn mercury tourniquet celebration dishwasher wallpaper crocodile gallery telescope

Polysyllables 7

library envelope  decorations animal passengers trampoline chimpanzee competition recycling banana cinnamon magnolia safari newspaper pillow-fight minibus strawberry coriander

Polysyllables 8

utensils ceremony commuters imagination microwave rocking-horse conditioner detective operation microscope explorers potholder emergency binoculars concertina television punctuation spectacles

Polysyllables 9

conductor wheelbarrow alligator punishment telephone radiator elevator kimono stethoscope armadillo passionfruit tiddlywinks bikini colander pedestrian Cinderella champion magazine

Polysyllables 10

kangaroo anorak harmonica apricot flamingo buttonhole pyjamas cafeteria triangle gooseberries Pinocchio material pelican Colosseum underpants receptionist examination cereal

Polysyllables 11

pantomime skyscraper deerstalker Thoroughbred bitumen rectangle pigeonholes sou’wester cuttlefish Rapunzel bandages Dalmatian minaret lemonade porcupine candelabra 70 daffodil

Polysyllables 12

goanna poinsettia marathon xylophone composer ornament domino paediatrician cockatoo dinner-jacket jellyfish lollipop koala advertisements celery neopolitan director hexagon

Polysyllables 13

loudspeaker sugarcane percolator echidna safety-pin tuxedo manuscript perspiration medicine duffel-bag India currency miniature influenza chocolate eye-shadow comedian albatross

Polysyllables 14 - Australia

Australia Western Australia Northern Territory South Australia Queensland New South Wales Canberra Victoria Tasmania kangaroo wallaby echidna koala kookaburra cockatoo lorikeet rosella currawang bowerbird willy-wagtail peach-face platypus bilby Tasmanian-devil wombat dingo bandicoot billabong dot-painting Christmas-beetle witchetty-grub funnel-web crocodile goanna monitor carpet-python copperhead waratah grevillea boronia flannel-flower bottle-brush Geraldton-wax

Polysyllables 14 - Canada

Canada Alberta British Columbia Manitoba New Brunswick Newfoundland and Labrador North West Territories Nova Scotia Nunavut Ontario Prince Edward Island Québec Saskatchewan Yukon nanaimo bar CBC  fiddlehead maple leaf  Canadians garburator humidex maple syrup loonie polar bear grizzly bear Talahan Bear Dog ogopogo harlequin ducks woodpecker caribou Canada goose blueberries strawberries blackberries cloudberries raspberries gooseberries tuckamore snarbuckle bannikin bedlamer faffering bakeapple pemmican

Polysylables 14 - Ireland

Ireland Irish flag colcannon leprechaun water spaniel bluebell white-fronted goose Celtic cross St Patrick soda bread rhododendron potato bread Jack Russell terrier countryside famine wall sanvitalia (Irish eyes)

Polysyllables 14 - Malaysia (large file)

Malaysia elephant orang-utan crocodile buffalo butterfly centipede millipede firefly caterpillar mosquito rambutan pineapple mata-kucing durian mangosteen papaya dragon-fruit carambola rafflesia hibiscus bunga-telang frangipani proboscis-monkey silver-hair-monkey alligator Malaysian-coral-snake hornbill-bird flowerpecker  Deepavali (Depawali, Dipavali, Dewali, Diwali, Divali, Dipotsavi, Dipapratipad) Thaipusam Hari-Raya Lunar-New-Year Vaisakhi-Day (Baisakhi-Day) Chap-Goh-Meh

Polysyllables 14 - South Africa

South Africa South African flag impala protea koeksisters elephant rhinoceros hippopotamus buffalo gecko zebra nyala kudu wildebeest vervet monkey crocodile water monitor clivia jacaranda gazania strelitzia bromeliad polygala bobotie bunny chow lemon papaya banana mango beadwork telephone wire baskets Ndebele dolls warthog musicians teething beads

Polysylables 14 - United Kingdom

United Kingdom Union Jack Westminster Beefeater Windsor Castle highland dancers Ring of Brodgar Edinburgh Castle Border Collie hammer thrower birdwatcher Giants Causeway Mountains of Mourne potato bread flower of flax Atlantic Ocean kingfisher Welsh corgi laverbread daffodil bara brith hearlequin duck eisteddfod Stonehenge Westminster Bridge gooseberries strawberries BBC Queens’ Regiment bacon butty fish and chips bangers and mash spotted dick William Shakespeare liquorice allsorts

Polysyllables 15 - Iambic onset: weak syllable strong syllable ... (WS...)

umbrella banana apartments koala tomato echidna amazing astonishing exciting achievement thermometer asparagus potato pyjamas bananas spaghetti police car refrigerator construction bikini safari precipitation graffiti accordion computer macramé propeller geranium detergent zucchini nasturtium equestrian photographer magician conductor  electrician commuters detective pedestrian composer director producer rehearsal emergency aquarium Pinocchio material binoculars Rapunzel impala flamingo gazania bromeliad papaya boronia Canadians  St Patrick orang utan flotilla prescription skedaddle delicious adventurous imaginative

Trochaic Sequences

Trochees 1

helicopter, locomotive, caterpillar, watermelon, kookaburra, motorcycle, grand piano, alligator, mashed potato, Easter Bunny, creepy crawly, cheeky monkey, clever puppy, birthday present, picking apples, big banana, camel rider, ballerina, taxi driver, soccer player, under water, hula dancer, television, Humpty Dumpty, finger painting, escalator

Trochees 2

letterboxes, tiger lily, very windy, scary monster, service station, stripy tiger, hungry kitty, cosy jacket, clever lady, aviator, tractor driver, unicycle, shopping basket, stacking boxes, supermarket, calculator, shopping trolley, nice tomatoes, laundry basket, rubber duckie, pillowcases, dictionary, competition, excavator, chocolate crackles, agapanthus, Persian carpet, Cookie Monster, grand piano, tiny pencil

Trochees 3

pencil sharpener, birthday candles, tape recorder, suit of armour, asthma puffer, graduation, Viking helmet, Hello Kitty, pressure cooker, motor scooter, airline pilot, ballroom dancing, table tennis, ten pin bowling, table tennis, exercising, scuba diving, entertainer, ballerina, hula dancer, opera singer, film director, portrait painter, carpet  layer, fortune teller, respirator, coffee maker, vacuum cleaner, concertina

Trochees 4

ukulele, movie camera, tennis player, toilet paper, salad sandwich, bunch of roses, fortune cookie, apple blossom, window cleaner, paper hanger, teeter totter, vaccination, milk and cookies, bunch of daisies, station wagon, music teacher, salad dressing, taxi driver, glass of water, education, swimming lesson, synthesizer, stormy weather, consultation, swimming teacher, exclamation, animation, plastic bottle, four-leaf clover, end of freeway

Word final schwa

schwa word finally 1: Non-rhotic varieties of English: word final schwa #1

grasshopper caterpillar woodpecker spider tiger panther koala gopher beaver otter alligator lobster llama boxer banana guava pizza hamburger cola tortilla pepper cucumber America Georgia Iowa California Minnesota Louisiana Alabama Arizona Montana Florida Indiana Alaska Oklahoma Virginia South Dakota Nebraska South Carolina West Virginia North Carolina Pennsylvania North Dakota North America South America Africa Australia Asia Canada soccer player pitcher basketballer catcher skier swimmer diver bowler server fencer archer weight lifter

schwa word finally 2: Non-rhotic varieties of English: word final schwa #2 (occupations)

painter dancer tailor builder singer doctor cleaner presenter bull fighter exterminator waiter construction worker teacher photographer sister dog trainer dressmaker interviewer driver shopper director barber welder window cleaner bricklayer roofer carpenter carpet layer concreter glazier

/h/

/h/ Syllable Initial Word Initial - polysyllables

hippopotamus holiday Halloween Himalayas hairdresser hydrogen handkerchief harmonica horrible headmaster headmistress headquarters hexagon helicopter hilarious hollyhock honeycomb hospital housekeeper horseradish horticulture hydrangea housewarming Humpty Dumpty

'-ing' words

ng Syllable Final Word Final - 'ing-words'

pulling looking eating guessing feeding sitting playing mixing riding watering blowing feeding building holding dressing balancing listening saving see-sawing skipping cutting drumming singing talking running hiding finding hopping skate-boarding swinging dancing reading crying picking squirting tying brushing collecting vacuuming sneezing drinking hanging marching knitting skating jumping folding tickling fishing climbing relaxing sliding skiing diving kicking finishing smelling drawing floating recycling jumping throwing making giving pretending toasting picnicking dancing cart-wheeling selling sailing walking

Sonority Sequencing Principle (SSP)

Sonority is the amount of stricture or ‘sound’ in a consonant or vowel (Roca & Johnson, 1999). Steriade (1990) proposed a numerical sonority hierarchy: a list of phones, ordered according to degree of oral stricture and sound. Most sonorous are vowels (= 0), then glides (=1), liquids (= 2), nasals (= 3), voiced fricatives (= 4), voiceless fricatives (=5), voiced stops (=6) and finally the voiceless stops (=7) are least sonorant.

 

We prefer to articulate words with a rise and fall in sonority. For example, in 'tramp' we start with the least sonorous segment (voiceless stop /t/) then liquid /r/ with the vowel /æ/ at the peak, then the less sonorous nasal /m/, finally falling to the least sonorous voiceless stop /p/. This comes more ‘naturally’ to us than 'rtapm', for example, even though the segments are the same. This rise-then-fall tendency is called the sonority sequencing principle or SSP. 

Consonant clusters are more marked than singletons, but are some clusters more marked than others? One approach to classifying two-element consonant clusters according to markedness is to rank them according to their sonority difference score, using their numerical values from a sonority hierarchy (Ohala, 1999). For example, /kw/ (7 minus 1) has a sonority difference score of 6, whereas /fl/ (5 minus 2) scores 3. Clusters with SMALL sonority differences of 2, 3 or 4 may better promote generalised change to singletons and clusters. Gierut (1999), Gierut & Champion (2001), and Morrisette, Farris & Gierut (2006) provide evidence and target selection guidelines. 

Click here for pictures and (mainly) monosyllabic words with 3-element clusters and the more marked 2-element clusters. Below you will find long words that start with clusters and adjuncts.

Targeting the 3-element Clusters

Prior knowledge of the second element and the third element is required.

The 3-element consonant clusters, /spr/ /str/ /skr/ /spl/ and /skw/ should only be targeted if the child already has the relevant stop (/p/, /t/ or /k/) and the relevant liquid (/l/) or glide (/w/) present in his or her phonemic inventory. For example, if targeting /skw/ the child should have productive knowledge of /k/ and /w/, but does not need to have productive knowledge of /s/.

Targeting the 2-element Clusters

Prior knowledge of the first element and/or the second element is not required.

The 2-element clusters, /sm, /sn/, /fl/ etc. can be targeted irrespective of whether the child has previous knowledge of either or both of the two elements. For example, in targeting /sl/ the child may or may not have previous knowledge of /s/ and/or /l/.

Long words starting with /spr/, /str/, /skr/, /spl/ and /skw/

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 1

springboard spray-paint sprinkler straightjacket streetlight strawberry strongroom streamers stratosphere stretcher scribble scrunchie scrambled-eggs scrapbook splinter splashes splutter squabble squeamish squeegee squirrel squiggle

Long words starting with /sm/ and /sn/

Sonority Difference = 2

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 2

smithereens smokestack smelly smidgen smoothie smarty-pants snack-bar sniffle snazzy snooker snowball snorkeler snippets

Long words starting with /fl/,  /fr/, /θr/, /sl/ and /ʃr/

Sonority Difference = 3

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 3

flabbergasted flagpole flashlight flat-mates flavourings flourmill fleabag floodlight floorboards flower-shop flotilla flywheel fragrance fraction fruit-shop frankfurter freckles freebie freezer frogman frosting fragment fracture framework thresher three-hundred thriller throttle threadbare threshold sleepwalker slowcoach sluicegate slaphappy sleigh-bells slapstick shrubbery shrunken shredder

Long words starting with /bl/, /br/, /dr/, /ɡl/, /ɡr/ and /sw/

Sonority Difference = 4

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 4

blindfold blackboard blizzard blender blister blackberry blanket blood-donor bleeper blinkers blueberry breakwater bracelet bridegroom bracket breakfast branches broomstick bricklayer brolly driver drainhole driftwood dredger drawbridge dresser drapery drawstring dry-cleaner dressmaker drumstick drizzle

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 5

glacier glitter glassware glutton globetrotter glockenspiel graduation greasepaint grotto grader griddle greenhouse graffiti grindstone greyhound grandparents graveyard grapevine grassland gravel groundsheet sweatband swallow swimmer swami sweater sweetheart swimsuit swagman swampland swap-meet sweetener

Long words starting with /pl/, /pr/, /tr/, /kl/, /kr/, /tw/, and /kw/

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 6

planet plumber plantation platter plughole plaster playgroup protester precipice prickle prodigy precipitation princess producer preschool principal project prescription printer propeller present prisoner President prizewinner prospector tricycle trawler treadmill transmitter trophy traffic trumpeter treasure trampoline triangle trapeze trellis triplets

Clusters SIWI in Polysyllables 7

clothing clairvoyant cloudburst cleaner cloverleaf clapper clockwork classroom cloisters clotheshorse clutter klaxon crockery cranium criminal crocodile crayon crustacean cricketer crescent crusader crosspatch crisscross croquet cruiser cryptographer twilight twiglet twister twinset Twitter Tweedle-dum Tweedle-dee quartet quadrangle quarter quagmire choirmaster question-mark qualifications quarrel quintet quicksand quarry quizmaster

Long words starting with /sp/, /st/ and /sk/

Clusters (ADJUNCTS) SIWI in Polysyllables 8

spaceship speaker spectacles speedometer sportswear spoonful storyteller steamroller stadium staircase studio steamer stable stethoscope standpipe stomachache steeplechase storeroom stargazer sterilizer stirrup statue student stowaway skyrocket sketchbook scoreboard skullduggery scaffolding schoolteacher skinflint scarecrow scooter scavenger scholar skullcap skateboard skeleton scullery skedaddle

SLP/SLT, ESL/EFL

On this page you will find links to related pages that contain pictures and words for working with children with speech sound disorders. Below these links are minimal pair word lists for speech-language pathology / speech and language therapy (SLP/SLT) intervention. For the most part the word-pairs are 'picturable' and child-friendly.

The minimal pairs may also be useful for English as a Second Language (ESL) and English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching and learning purposes.

Related Pages

Word Lists

Word Lists for Focused Auditory Input, Phonological Intervention, and Articulation Therapy

Word and Picture Worksheets

Worksheets: Consonants, Clusters, Vowels
Worksheets: Complexity; Lexical Properties, Markedness, SSP, Phonotactics, Facilitative Contexts

Worksheets: Contrasts; Minimal Pairs; Near Minimal Pairs

Worksheets: Revisions and Repairs and the fixed-up-one routine

Worksheets: Within Word ("Medial") Consonants
Worksheets: Maximal Oppositions (Minimal Pairs)
Worksheets: Long Words

 
Do you come here often? Are the resources useful? They are? Then please consider donating to the upkeep of this site. THANK YOU!

How many exemplars?

There are many minimal pairs to choose from here, but in selecting target words for phonological therapy it is definitely not a case of 'more is better'. Elbert, Powell and Swartzlander (1991) found that they could teach as few as 3 to 5 minimal pairs in order for their participants to show spontaneous generalisation to other words containing the target sounds.

Elbert, M., Powell, T. W., & Swartzlander, P.  (1991). Toward a technology of generalization:  How many exemplars are sufficient?  Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 81-87.


Minimal Pairs


The vocabulary on this page represents (non-rhotic) Australian English pronunciation, and although most of the minimal pairs will 'work' in other dialects of English you may need to discard some. For example, pairs like saw-shore, and spa-star are minimal pairs in Australian English and in other non-rhotic varieties of English, but not in rhotic dialects such as Canadian, Irish, Scottish and most US 'Englishes'.

     

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P pa pack page paid pail paint pair pale palm Pam pan pane park part pat patch pate path Paul pave paw pawn pay pea peach peak peal pearl peas peat peck peel peep peg pen perm pest pestle pet pick pie pied pig pile pill pin pine Ping pink pip pipe pit pocket pod poke pole pong Pooh pool pop Pope pork port pose post pot pow power psalm pug pull pump pun punch punk purr purse putt

p

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pea bee pin bin peg beg peep beep pay bay peach beach park bark pig big peas bees path bath pug bug pie bye

p

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pie tie pine tine Paul tall peel teal pen ten pale tail pea tea pin tin peach teach peas tease pug tug pan tan pork talk

p

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pie die pine dine peal deal P D pin din peep deep pay day park dark pig dig peel deal pick Dick pill dill pile dial

p

k

Paul call peel keel pick kick poke coke pool cool pill kill pale kale pea key peg keg pay K peas keys pale Kale peas keys peep keep pick kick pan can palm calm pair care pole coal

p

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P ghee pie guy pot got page gauge pearl girl go pate gate pest guest pied guide

p

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pan fan pin fin paint faint pig fig pine fine palm farm peel feel pat fat pair fair pile file pit fit pole foal port fort purr fur pork fork

p

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P V pie vie pan van purse verse pine vine peas Vs pow vow pet vet pail veil pest vest pat pole vole pile vial

p

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P C pie sigh pip sip peep seep Pope soap paint saint page sage pine sign peas seas palm psalm peat seat pun sun pack sack peel seal paw saw pink sink pea sea sail pail

p

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P Z zip pip Zen pen Pooh zoo

p

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P she pie shy pin shin pot shot pop shop pip ship peep sheep park shark pine shine peat sheet power shower Pooh shoe Paul shawl

p

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loop luge

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pie thigh pug thug pick thick pong thong pink think paw thaw patch thatch pawn thorn

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P thee pie thy pen then pen peas these pose those pay they pair their pat that pan than

p

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P he pie hi pot hot pop hop pip hip peep heap Pope hope pen hen pearl hurl pug hug pat hat pill hill part heart pair hair pose hose pawn horn pit hit

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pie chai pin chin pop chop pip chip peep cheep peas cheese palm charm pick chick pane chain pair chair pork chalk pest chest

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peep jeep pay J pump jump pet jet pug jug punk junk pig jig pail gaol/jail P G pack jack paid jade pa jar pane Jane poke joke

p

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pan man pop mop patch match pug mug pat mat pine mine pail mail peel meal pie my mark park

p

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pot knot pip nip purse nurse pine nine peas knees pet net putt nut pail nail pose nose

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whip wing bap bang rip ring tip ting strip string

p

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pick lick pine line punch lunch pot lot peg leg peach leech peep leap pop lop park lark pay lei pane lane pink link peak leak

p

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peach reach pane rain peep reap pink rink peak reek pack rack pail rail peel reel pat rat peck wreck pest rest post roast pig rig pocket rocket pool rule pa Rah pug rug Pope rope pen wren pestle wrestle pie rye Ping ring pod rod pose rose

p

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pie why pin win pot what pipe wipe pip whip peep weep pen when purse worse page wage pig wig pearl whirl pine wine peel wheel pick wick perm worm Paul wall pull wool pave wave

p

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pot yacht pen yen pay yay Pooh U pet yet pawn yawn Pam yam pack yak

     

b

 

B babe back bag bait bale ball balloon ban band banks bap bard bare bark Bart bat batch bath bay beach bead beam bean beans bear bed bee beef beep beer bees beet beg beige bell belly Ben Bertie Bess best bet Bic big bight bile bill billy bin bird bite boar boast boat bog bold bone boo book boom boot borax bore born boughs bow bower bowl box boy brass buck bug bull bump bumper bun bunch bunk burst bus bust butt buy bye

b

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pea bee pin bin peg beg peep beep pay bay peach beach park bark pig big peas bees path bath pug bug pie bye

b

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bow toe boy toy bee tea buy tie boo two bed Ted bin tin bug tug book took back tack bun ton buck tuck bell tell bag tag bean teen bite tight ball tall beach teach bone tone bap tap bale tail beam team Ben ten

b

d

bow dough bee D buy die boo do bed dead bin din buck duck bean Dean bale dale Ben den boar door bay day B D bait date bark dark bog dog bug Doug big dig Bart dart bust dust beer deer bye dye beep deep

b

k

bee key book cook bite kite ball call bone cone bap cap bale kale bow cow bog cog Bart cart beep keep

b

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bow go bee ghee buy guy boo goo bus Gus big gig bun gun bag gag bowl goal ball gall Bess guess boat goat bet get bait gate bard guard board gourd best guest bust gust bold gold brass grass

b

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bus fuss bin fin bite fight big fig bun fun bowl foal ball fall bell fell bone phone bead feed box fox bat fat

b

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V bee van ban veil bale vest best vat bat vet bet vole bowl Vs bees vow bow vial bile

b

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bean scene bun sun bee sea beet seat back sack bead seed band sand bale sale balloon saloon bell cell billy silly box socks B C

b

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boo zoo boom zoom bed zed bee zee back Zach bap zap bone zone boot zoot

b

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beep sheep Bert shirt beet sheet bow show bark shark bell shell bower shower boo shoe ball shawl bin shin bee she buy shy back shack book shook bake shake bark shark boo shoe

b

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lube luge babe beige

b

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thick Bic third bird thaw bore thatch batch Thumper bumper thief beef thorax borax thorn born thanks banks thirty Bertie

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bees these B thee buy thy boughs those bay they bear their bow though bat that ban than Ben then bare there

b

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bee he beep heap bay hay bath hearth bug hug bye hi bow hoe book hook back hack ball hall bale hail bat hat bold hold bowl hole band hand

b

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bin chin Bic chick bees cheese bear chair best chest buy chai book chook

b

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beep jeep bump jump beans jeans bet jet bunk junk bog jog bug jug big jig bag Jag belly jelly back Jack

b

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mat bat mic bike mug bug

b

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bet net butt nut bight night bap nap bow no bale nail bows nose B knee bite knight bay neigh bad nag beer near best nest boat note book nook bun nun

b

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tub tongue gob gong fab fang rub rung

b

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beef leaf bite light base lace Bic lick bet let bake lake bead lead bunch lunch beaks leeks bet let bay lay bow low

b

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bow row buy rye boo roo bed red bug rug book rook back rack bun run buck ruck bag rag right bite beach reach bap rap bale rail beam boy Roy bench wrench bough row bust rust boast roast best rest bag rag big rig beep reap bung rung

b

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bow wow bow woe buy why boo woo bed wed back whack bun one bag wag bite white bale whale bough wow burst worst best west big wig beep weep ball wall bill will bead weed bin win bull wool beet  wheat bees wheeze bear wear Ben when bead weed bind wind

b

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Ben yen bay yay boo you bet yet back yak Bess yes boot ute born yawn bard yard Bert yurt

     

t

 

T ta table tail talk tall tan tank tanks tape tart taw tax tea teach teal tease teat Ted teen tell ten Tess tie tight tin tine ting tit toad toast toe ton tong took toot tore tote tower toy Ts tuck tug two

t

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pie tie pine tine Paul tall peel teal pen ten pale tail pea tea pin tin peach teach peas tease pug tug pan tan pork talk

t

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bow toe boy toy bee tea buy tie boo two bed Ted bin tin bug tug book took back tack bun ton buck tuck bell tell bag tag bean teen bite tight ball tall beach teach bone tone bap tap bale tail beam team Ben ten

t

d

ten den tea D tore door tin din tip dip town down tot dot tart dart tie die

t

k

key tea cap tap cub tub call tall cool tool cape tape keys Ts coast toast kite tight coat tote cot tot coffee toffee

t

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two goo tie guy tap gap tape gape tool ghoul tail gale tag gag tea ghee table gable tall gall town gown toast ghost tot got ton gun Tess guess test guest

t

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tin fin tool fool tail fail ten fen top fop tea Fi table fable tax fax ton fun

t

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tie vie tick Vic tail veil tea V test vest T V tile vial

t

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tub sub tip sip toe sew tick sick tail sail tore sore turf surf tea sea tack sack teat seat tower sour tell cell toot suit

t

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two zoo tap zap tit zit ten Zen tea Z test zest toot zoot

t

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two shoe tie shy tape shape top shop tag shag tore shore tip ship tot shot toe show teat sheet tower shower tell shell take shake tack shack tin shin

t

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lute luge root rouge bait beige

t

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tick thick tong thong tank thank taw thaw torn thorn tanks thanks

t

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tease these toes those tear their toe though tan than ten then

t

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two who tie high top hop tub hub tail hail tug hug ten hen tea he toast host Ted head tot hot tip hip took hook tear hair tart heart taste haste torn horn toe hoe

t

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cheese Ts chop top chin tin chew two chai tie chick tick chalk talk chest test chick tick chip dip chews twos chart tart

t

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jape tape gin tin gaol/jail tail jug tug tag Jen ten G tea jest test jack tack Jag tag

t

m

two moo tie my tap map top mop tick Mick tail mail tug mug ten men tea me tore more tan man teen mean tight might tall mall tone moan toast most tote moat tacks Max teat meet tit mitt

t

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tight night tap nap toe no tot knot tail nail tame name toes nose test nest tease knees took nook tip nip tape nape

t

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wit wing tut tongue bat bang writ ring tit ting kit king got gong fat fang rut rung bit Bing

t

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Lou two lie tie lap tap lop top lick tick lug tug lag tag Len ten label table less Tess teach leech luck tuck tight look took light tot lot lip tip loss toss law taw lose twos lake take lair tear low toe lone tone lit tit teak leek load toad

t

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teach reach teak reek tack rack tail rail test rest toast roast tool rule toes rose ta Rah tug rug ten wren tie rye toe row tag rag two roo Ted red toad road

t

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why tie win tin woe toe wipe type one ton wag tag white tight whale tail west test wall tall wick tick wed Ted wheat teat wake take wheeze Ts whip tip week teak wheel teal

t

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tot yacht ten yen two U torn yawn tam yam tack yak Tess yes toot ute tell yell tall yawl

     

d

 

D dale dame Dan dare dark dart date dawn day dead deal Dean debt deep deer dell den dent dial Dick die dig dill dime din dine dirty dock dole door dot Doug dough down doze Ds duck dull dumb dust dye

d

p

pie die pine dine peal deal P D pin din peep deep pay day park dark pig dig peel deal pick Dick pill dill pile dial

d

b

bow dough bee D buy die boo do bed dead bin din buck duck bean Dean bale dale Ben den boar door bay day B D bait date bark dark bog dog bug Doug big dig Bart dart bust dust beer deer bye dye beep deep

d

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ten den tea D tore door tin din tip dip town down tot dot tart dart tie die

d

k

D key bin kin Dean keen dale kale dumb come door core day K date Kate dog cog dart cart deer Kia deep keep deal keel dill kill dole coal dawn corn dock cock dare care dot cot

d

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go dough gown down gate date gust dust gull dull guide died ghee D gig dig

d

f

din fin den fen dig fig dine fine deal feel dough foe dead fed done fun dale fail deed feed dill fill dial file dough foe D Fi dead fed date fête dog fog deer fear dine fine deal feel dare fair dole foal Ds fees

d

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Dan van dole vole dine vine deal veal dale veil dial vial D V deer veer debt vet dote vote Dick Vic dawn Vaughan dent vent

d

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dip sip D C dock sock duck suck dough sew die sigh door d sea deep seep

d

z

zip dip zoo do Zen den zee D zed dead

d

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door shore dip ship dot shot dark shark dock shock dough show dye shy dirt shirt deep sheep

d

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rude rouge

d

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Dick thick dank thank dumb thumb door thaw dirty thirty

d

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Ds these D thee die thy doze those day they dare their dough though Dan than den then

d

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hoe dough he D hi die who do head dead hail dale hen den hay day hate date hark dark hog dog hug Doug heart dart hear deer high dye heap deep

d

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din chin Dick chick dip chip Ds cheese dare chair doze chose dye chai do chew door chore dock chock deep cheep dive chive dumb chum

d

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Gs Ds jeep deep jive dive jaw door G D jam dam jog dog jug dig just dust

d

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mow dough me D my die moo do muck duck mean Dean mail dale men den more door May day mate date mark dark mog dog mug Doug Mig dig mart dart must dust

d

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nice dice nip dip knee D no dough nine dine knot dot nail dale name dame

d

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bad bang rid ring kid king god gong fad fang bid Bing

d

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low dough Leigh D lie die Lou do lead dead Lynne din luck duck lean Dean Len den lime dime lei day late date lark dark log dog lug Doug lye dye leap deep lamb dam line dine lame dame lot dot

d

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row dough rye die roo do red dead ruck duck rail dale roar door ray day rate date rug Doug rig dig rust dust reap deep

d

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dye why din win dot what dip whip deep weep den when dig wig dine wine deal wheel Dick wick Dave wave dough woe do woo dead wed done one dale whale deed weed dill will din win Ds wheeze dock wok dial while

d

j

yacht dot yen den yay day you do yet debt yawn dawn yam dam yell dell yum dumb

     

k

 

calf call calm camp can cap care cart case cat coach coal coast cob coffee cog coke cold come cone cook cool coot cop cord core cork corn cow cub curd curl K kale Kate keel keen keep keg Ken key keys Kia kick kid kill king kink kipper Kirsty kiss kit kite

k

p

Paul call peel keel pick kick poke coke pool cool pill kill pale kale pea key peg keg pay K peas keys pale Kale peas keys peep keep pick kick pan can palm calm pair care pole coal

k

b

bee key book cook bite kite ball call bone cone bap cap bale kale bow cow bog cog Bart cart beep keep

k

t

key tea cap tap cub tub call tall cool tool cape tape keys Ts coast toast kite tight coat tote cot tot coffee toffee

k

d

D key bin kin Dean keen dale kale dumb come door core day K date Kate dog cog dart cart deer Kia deep keep deal keel dill kill dole coal dawn corn dock cock dare care dot cot

k

ɡ

key ghee cap gap cage gauge card guard coal goal curl girl coat goat cold gold

k

f

kale fail keel feel cat fat coal foal car far cake fake case face kite fight cold fold calm farm cool fool cone phone kit fit Kate fête call fall Kia fear kin fin cast fast kill fill corn fawn can fan cob fob

k

v

cast vast cane vein coal vole key V cat vat can van cow vow kale veil cane vane

k

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kale sail keel seal cat sat coal sole kite sight cold sold kit sit call Saul kill sill cob sob kick sick coke soak key sea cook sook cow sow keep seep come sum core sore cage sage cold sold kit sit cap sap

k

z

cap zap coo zoo cone zone key Z kit zit king zing kipper zipper coot zoot

k

ʃ

kale shale coal shoal call shawl kick Schick key she cook shook keep sheep core shore cape shape cake shake Kia shear kin shin corn shorn Kurt shirt coo shoe cot shot cock shock cop shop

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kin chin kick chick cop chop cane chain keys cheese care chair cork chalk coke choke kill chill  cook chook cap chap come chum calm charm keep cheep cat chat coo chew

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guy chai guess chess guest chest gum chum goo chew gill chill gap chap gear cheer

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chin fin chop fop cheese fees chair fair chalk fork choke folk chose foes chill fill charm farm chat fat chilli filly chive five cheer fear

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Vic chick vane chain Vs cheese vat chat vest chest veer cheer vie chai

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chick sick chip sip chilli silly

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Zane chain Zs cheese zap chap zoo chew zest chest zoos choose

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choose shoes chop shop chair share cheap sheep chew shoe chip ship

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thin chin thick chick

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cheese these chose those chair their chat that

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hop chop who chew high chai hawk chalk hip chip heart chart hair chair hook chook hum chum heap cheep hose chose hive chive hear cheer

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cheese Gs chain Jane cheap jeep chunk junk choke joke chive jive cello jello

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chick Mick chop mop chain mane chair mare choke Moke chose mows chill mill chap map chum mum chat mat chew moo chai my cello mellow merry cherry meter cheetah

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nick chick knees cheese nose chose nil chill nook chook nap chap numb chum gnat chat gnu chew nest chest near cheer nip chip nook chook knit chit knock chock

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witch wing touch tongue batch bang rich ring kitsch king switch swing stitch sting lunch lung

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Lynne chin lick chick lose choose lip chip lop chop lane chain lair chair limp chimp  lamp champ lie chai lace chase lock choc look chook link chink leak cheek

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chew roo chat rat chain rain chase race chink rink chime rhyme chook rook chink rink chai rye chip rip cheep reap chair rare  chest rest chose rose chum rum choose roos

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wick chick win chin Wayne chain west chest whip chip walk chalk

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ewe chew year cheer yellow cello yes chess

     

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G  gaol gel George germ gin Gs J jab jack jacks jade Jag jail Jake Jan Jane jape jar jaw Jean jeans jeep jello jelly Jen jet jetty jig jive Joan  job jocks Joe jog John joist joke jot Js jug  juice jump junk just jut jute

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peep jeep pay J pump jump pet jet pug jug punk junk pig jig pail gaol/jail P G pack jack paid jade pa jar pane Jane poke joke

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beep jeep bump jump beans jeans bet jet bunk junk bog jog bug jug big jig bag Jag belly jelly back Jack

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jape tape gin tin gaol/jail tail jug tug tag Jen ten G tea jest test jack tack Jag tag

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Gs Ds jeep deep jive dive jaw door G D jam dam jog dog jug dig just dust

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cane Jane cot jot K J key G kale gaol/jail car jar cog jog coin join cob job cab jab coot jute

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gale gaol/jail got jot gig jig gill Jill ghee G guess Jess get jet guest jest gust just gape jape goose juice gone John gear jeer gunk junk gag Jag gorge George

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fan Jan fin gin fig jig phone Joan fox jocks fog jog fear jeer folk joke fax jacks fake Jake far jar foe Joe fade jade Faye J

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G V gaol/jail veil  Jan van jeer veer Gs Vs Jane vane jello cello jello jet vet Jim vim jest

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scene Jean Seine Jane sea G sack Jack sale gaol/jail cell gel C G sill Jill sob job soak joke seep jeep say J set jet sake Jake sim Jim saw jaw suit jute sacks jacks Sam jam sunk junk

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jute zoot G Z jack Zach Joan zone Jen Zen

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G she jot shot jeep sheep Joe show gaol/jail shale Jock shock jut shut jute shoot gin shin jocks shocks jeer shear jacks shacks Jake shake jade shade Jack shack gel shell jute shoot

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thaw jaw

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Gs these G thee jeer their Jo though J they

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he G hot jot heap jeep hen Jen hug jug hill Jill hay J hoe Joe hail gaol/jail hoist joist hock Jock hut jut hoot jute

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cheese Gs chain Jane cheap jeep chunk junk choke joke chive jive cello jello

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G me Jen men jug mug Jill mill J May Joe mow gaol/jail mail joist moist Jock mock jut mutt Jan man jig Mig Joan moan jocks mocks jog mog joke Moke jacks Max Jake make jade made Jane mane junk monk  jello mellow Jean mean Jack Mac job mob jet met

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G knee Jill nil J neigh Joe no gaol/jail nail Jock knock jut nut Jack knack job knob jet net Jag nag jape nape jest nest

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badge bang ridge ring

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lot jot leap jeep lei J lane Janelet jet lay J low Joe lug jug lag Jag less Jess limb Jim Leigh loss joss law jaw lute jute lax jacks lamb jam log jog

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rain Jane reap jeep rack jack rail gaol/jail rest jest rig jug Rah jar rug jug wren Jen rust just ran Jan racks jacks rake Jake row Joe raid jade ray J raw jaw rut jut rag Jag rot jot root jute

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weep jeep whale gaol/jail wig jig weigh J wet jet worm germ wade jade

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yay J yet jet yak jack yolk joke yam jam ute jute yeti jetty yacht jot yell gel

     

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Mac Maeve mail male mall man map mare mark marred mart mash mat match mate Maud Max May meal meet mellow Mem meter mic mice Mick Mig might mile milk mill mime mine Ming mink miss mite mitt mix moan moat mob mock mog moist Moke mole money moo moose

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pan man pop mop patch match pug mug pat mat pine mine pail mail peel meal pie my mark park

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mat bat mic bike mug bug

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two moo tie my tap map top mop tick Mick tail mail tug mug ten men tea me tore more tan man teen mean tight might tall mall tone moan toast most tote moat tacks Max teat meet tit mitt

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mow dough me D my die moo do muck duck mean Dean mail dale men den more door May day mate date mark dark mog dog mug Doug Mig dig mart dart must dust

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kale mail keel meal cat mat coal mole kite might cold mould kit mitt call mall kill mill cob mob kick Mick coke Moke key me come mum core more can man cop mop Ken men key me cart mart kiss miss K May care mare

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my guy moo goo mail gale Mig gig Maeve gave mill gill me ghee mall gall musty gusty mole goal mess guess moat goat met get mate gate marred guard Maud gourd must gust mould gold moose goose map gap Morse gorse

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man fan mat fat mine fine mail fail meat feet meal feel money funny make fake mix fix mole foal mountain fountain mate fête maid fade

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van man vole mole vine mine veal meal veil mail vial mile V me vet met vote moat Vic Mick vie my vat mat vein mane

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mine sign mail sale meat seat meal seal money sunny mix six milk silk mouth south mole sole

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moo zoo me Z Mac Zach map zap moan zone men Zen mitt zit Ming zing mink zinc

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choux moo shack Mac shade made shake make shale mail Shane mane shark mark shave Maeve shawl mall she me shea May sheet meat shine mine shoal mole shoe moo shop mop show mow shy my  

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loom luge room rouge

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Mick thick mink think mum thumb more thaw thatch mourn thorn

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me thee my thy Mem them May they mat that miss this man than men then mare there

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he me hi my hop mop hope mope hen men hug mug hat mat hill mill host most heart mart hair mare hose mows horn mourn hit mitt hay May hoe mow hail mail hold mould hole mole hate mate horse Morse who moo house mouse hoist moist hum mum hock mock hut mutt hull mull hello mellow

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chick Mick chop mop chain mane chair mare choke Moke chose mows chill mill chap map chum  mum chat mat chew moo chai my cello mellow merry cherry meter cheetah

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G me Jen men jug mug Jill mill J May Joe mow gaol/jail mail joist moist Jock mock jut mutt Jan man jig Mig Joan moan jocks mocks jog mog joke Moke jacks Max Jake make jade made Jane mane junk monk jello mellow Jean mean Jack Mac job mob jet met

m

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gnash mash gnat mat knack Mac knave Maeve knead mead knee me kneel meal knight mite knit mitt knob mob nail mail Nan man nap map neat meat neigh May nice mice nick Mick night might nil mill Nile mile nine mine no mow nope mope Norse Morse note moat numb mum nut mutt

m

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whim wing rim ring tin ting kin king gone gong fan fang run rung bin Bing thin thing

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line mine lunch munch lop mop lark mark lei May lane mane louse mouse link mink light might lace mace lick Mick let met late mate lime mime low mow Lou moo lie my lap map lug mug less mess luck muck Leigh me loss moss lake make lone moan lit mitt lax Max licks mix lash mash log mog lice mice

m

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rain mane rink mink rack Mac rail mail reel meal rat mat roast most rig Mig rug mug rope mope wren men rust must rye my ring Ming ran man rare mare right might read mead rate mate race mace rake make row mow runny money raid maid ray May rue moo wrap map rung mung ruck muck rile mile rush mush rash mash rut mutt rhyme mime

m

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mow woe my why moo woo Mac whack mite white mail whale mall wall mill will mead weed meat wheat Mick wick mock sock wok me wee May weigh Maud ward mine wine Moke woke men when mink wink meal wheel mile while maid wade mire wire

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moo ewe mellow yellow mess yes may yay met yet Mac yak Moke yolk map yap

     

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gnash gnat gnaw gnome knack knave knead knee kneel knees knight knit knob knocks knot nag nail name Nan nap nape naughty near neat neigh Nell nerd nest nestle net nice nick night nil Nile nimble nine nip no nod nook nope Norse nose note numb nun nurse nut

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pot knot pip nip purse nurse pine nine peas knees pet net putt nut pail nail pose nose

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bet net butt nut bight night bap nap bow no bale nail bows nose B knee bite knight bay neigh bad nag beer near best nest boat note book nook bun nun

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tight night tap nap toe no tot knot tail nail tame name toes nose test nest tease knees took nook tip nip tape nape

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nice dice nip dip knee D no dough nine dine knot dot nail dale name dame

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kale nail keel kneel cat gnat kite night kit nit kill nil cob knob kick Nick key knee come numb core gnaw can Nan K neigh knot cot nut cut curse nurse cock knock cap nap came name coat note cook nook keys knees comb gnome

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know go nag gag nail gale knot got knave gave nil gill knee ghee nun gun note goat net get Nate gate nest guest nape gape noose goose nap gap nerd gird near gear Norse gorse

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fat gnat fine nine fail nail feel kneel fight night fit knit foam gnome forty naughty fun nun

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van Nan vine none veal kneel veil nail vial Nile V knee veer near vet net vote note Vic nick verse nurse vow now vest nest vat gnat

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sun nun sea knee seat neat sack knack seed knead sale nail cell Nell socks knocks sail sat gnat sight night sit nit sill nil sob knob sick nick sook nook sow now sum numb saw gnaw sap nap say neigh set net sash gnash

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gnu zoo Ned zed knee Z knack Zach nap zap knit zit nest zest nipper zipper nip zip

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Schick nick shack knack shag nag shale nail shape nape shave knave she knee shea neigh shear near sheet neat shine nine ship nip shoe gnu  shook nook shot knot show no shun nun

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bane beige

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Nick thick numb thumb nerd third nimble thimble gnaw thaw

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knees these knee thee nose those neigh they near their no though gnat that Nan than

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he knee hot knot hip nip hope nope hat gnat hill nil hose nose hit nit hay neigh hoe no hook nook hail nail horse Norse who gnu home gnome head Ned hick nick hum numb herd nerd hock knock hut nut

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nick chick knees cheese nose chose nil chill nook chook nap chap numb chum gnat chat gnu chew nest chest near cheer nip chip nook chook knit chit knock chock

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G knee Jill nil J neigh Joe no gaol/jail nail Jock knock jut nut Jack knack job knob jet net Jag nag jape nape jest nest

n

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gnash mash gnat mat knack Mac knave Maeve knead mead knee me kneel meal knight mite knit mitt knob mob nail mail Nan man nap map neat meat neigh May nice mice nick Mick night might nil mill Nile mile nine mine no mow nope mope Norse Morse note moat numb mum nut mutt

n

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fan fang win wing pin Ping ton tongue ban bang thin thing run rung bin Bing tin ting gone gong

n

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light night lock knock line nine lap nap low no lot knot lame name lei neigh let net lip nip low know life knife lice nice

n

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rack knack rail nail reel kneel rat gnat wreck neck rope nope wrestle nestle rod nod rose nose ran Nan right night run nun read need rocks knocks Rome gnome red Ned row no ray neigh rest nest wrap nap rile Nile rash gnash raw gnaw rut nut rook nook rag nag rot knot

n

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no woe knack whack night white nail whale nil will need weed neat wheat Nick wick knock wok knee wee neigh weigh nine wine kneel wheel Nile while now wow Ned wed nun sun one nag wag nurse worse nip whip knees wheeze

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nap yap Nell yell knack yak neigh yay net yet knot yacht

     

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label lace lag lair lake lamb lamp lane lank lap lard lark lash last latch laugh law lawn lax lay lead leaf leak leap leech leek leeks leg lei Leigh Len less let lick lid light limb lime line link lip load locks lone look loose loot lop lord lose loss lot Lou louse low luck lug lull lunch lung lute lye Lynne lyre

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pick lick pine line punch lunch pot lot peg leg peach leech peep leap pop lop park lark pay lei pane lane pink link peak leak

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beef leaf bite light base lace Bic lick bet let bake lake bead lead bunch lunch beaks leeks bet let bay lay bow low

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Lou two lie tie lap tap lop top lick tick lug tug lag tag Len ten label table less Tess teach leech luck tuck tight look took light tot lot lip tip loss toss law taw lose twos lake take lair tear low toe lone tone lit tit teak leek load toad

l

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low dough Leigh D lie die Lou do lead dead Lynne din luck duck lean Dean Len den lime dime lei day late date lark dark log dog lug Doug lye dye leap deep lamb dam line dine lame dame lot dot

l

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cook look cash lash cane lane code load cake lake case lace camp lamp cot lot cap lap kite light kick lick keg leg K lei cab lab calf laugh card lard cast last kid lid

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go low guy lie goo Lou gag lag got lot ghee Leigh guess less get let gate late guard lard gourd lord goose loose give live gap lap

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Lynne fin line fine lair fair lit fit light fight lone phone lead feed locks fox late fête log fog label fable lace face licks fix lax fax lake fake lame fame foam led fed low foe lay Faye

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vine line V Leigh vet let Vic lick Vaughan lawn vie lie vein lane

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lick sick line sign leap seep lei say link sink leak seek light sight let set lake sake lead seed lay say low sew lie sigh lap sap lag sag luck suck limb sim Leigh sea look sook light sight lip sip law saw lute suit lit sit leek seek lax sacks licks six lash sash lamb Sam lank sank

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loot zoot Lou zoo lead zed Leigh Z lack Zach lone zone lip zip lit zit Len Zen

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line shine lot shot leap sheep lop shop lark shark lei shea lane Shane leaf sheaf lick Schick low show Lou shoe lie shy lag shag Leigh she look shook lip ship lose shoes lake shake lute shoot lair leek chic Lynne shin lamb sham lank shank lard shard

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rule rouge bale beige

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lick thick long thong link think lank thank law thaw latch thatch leaf thief lawn thorn

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Leigh thee lie thy lay they lair their Len then

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he Leigh hi lie hot lot hop lop hip lip heap leap hug lug hatch latch hair lair horn lawn hit lit hay lay hoe low hook look hand land hate late who Lou half laugh house louse home loam head lead horde lord hick lick hank lank hush lush hock lock hull lull hoot lute

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Lynne chin lick chick lose choose lip chip lop chop lane chain lair chair limp chimp  lamp champ lie chai lace chase lock choc look chook link chink leak cheek

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lot jot leap jeep lei J lane Jane let jet lay J low Joe lug jug lag Jag less Jess limb Jim Leigh loss joss law jaw lute jute lax jacks lamb jam log jog

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line mine lunch munch lop mop lark mark lei May lane mane louse mouse link mink light might lace mace lick Mick let met late mate lime mime low  mow Lou moo lie my lap map lug mug less mess luck muck Leigh me loss moss lake make lone moan lit mitt lax Max licks mix lash mash log mog lice mice

l

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light night lock knock line nine lap nap low no lot knot lame name lei neigh let net lip nip low know life knife lice nice

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will wing rill ring till ting kill king swill swing still sting lull lung bill Bing

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lamp ramp lace race lake rake leaf reef lock rock light right load road line rhyme lane rain lamb ram lead read look rook

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lead weed lock wok lick wick light white lyre wire lake wake link wink lead wed let wet late wait leap weep life wife lip whip lei way line wine leak week lay weigh leak weak

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lamb yam lei yay lute ute lawn yawn less yes lard yard lot yacht let yet lap yap

     

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rabbit rack rag Rah raid rail rain rake ramp rand rank ranks rap rare rash rat rate rave reach real reap red reef reek reel rest rig right rile rill ring rink roach road roast rock rocket rod roll Rome roo rook roos root rope rose

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peach reach pane rain peep reap pink rink peak reek pack rack pail rail peel reel pat rat peck wreck pest rest post roast pig rig pocket rocket pool rule pa Rah pug rug Pope rope pen wren pestle wrestle pie rye Ping ring pod rod pose rose

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bow row buy rye boo roo bed red bug rug book rook back rack bun run buck ruck bag rag right bite beach reach bap rap bale rail beam boy Roy bench wrench bough row bust rust boast roast best rest bag rag big rig beep reap bung rung

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teach reach teak reek tack rack tail rail test rest toast roast tool rule toes rose ta Rah tug rug ten wren tie rye toe row tag rag two roo Ted red toad road

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row dough rye die roo do red dead ruck duck rail dale roar door ray day rate date rug Doug rig dig rust dust reap deep

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kale rail keel reel cat rat coast roast cash rash cook rook coal roll cane rain car Rah king ring code road cake rake case race camp ramp coach roach kite right cut rut cot rot

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go row guy rye goo roo gun run gag rag gale rail got rot gig rig gave rave gill rill goal roll gate rate guest rest gust rust give gap wrap rain gain

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fan ran fig rig feel reel fat rat fair rare foal roll fight right fun run feed read fox rocks fête rate face race fax racks fake rake fail rail foam Rome fed red foe row funny runny fade raid Faye ray

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van ran vole roll veal reel veil rail vial rile vote wrote vie rye vow row vest rest vat rat vein rain

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sail rail seal reel sand rand sash rash sew row soap rope sing ring sink rink sack rack sock rock sale rail sip rip

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roo zoo room zoom red zed rack Zach wrap zap root zoot wren Zen writ zit rest zest ring zing ripper zipper rink zinc rip zip

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rain Shane reap sheep reek chic rack shack rail shale rye shy rod shod rose shows rare share run shun rake shake red shed row show raid shade ray shea rue shoe rut shut roos shoes reef sheaf rook shook rag shag rot shot root shoot

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Rick thick wrong thong rink think raw thaw reef thief ranks thanks rank yank

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rose those ray they rare their row though rat that ran than wren then

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heap reap hail rail heel reel hat rat host roast hug rug hen wren hose rose hand rand hash rash hoe row hook rook habit rabbit head red hi rye hole roll hope rope hush rush hut rut hot rot hay ray

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chew roo chat rat chain rain chase race chink rink chime rhyme chook rook chink rink chai rye chip rip cheep reap chair rare  chest rest chose rose chum rum choose roos

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rain Jane reap jeep rack jack rail gaol/jail rest jest rig jug Rah jar rug jug wren Jen rust just ran Jan racks jacks rake Jake row Joe raid jade ray J raw jaw rut jut rag Jag rot jot root jute

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rain mane rink mink rack Mac rail mail reel meal rat mat roast most rig Mig rug mug rope mope wren men rust must rye my ring Ming ran man rare mare right might read mead rate mate race mace rake make row mow runny money raid maid ray May rue moo wrap map rung mung ruck muck rile mile rush mush rash mash rut mutt rhyme mime

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rack knack rail nail reel kneel rat gnat wreck neck rope nope wrestle nestle rod nod rose nose ran Nan right night run nun read need rocks knocks Rome gnome red Ned row no ray neigh rest nest wrap nap rile Nile rash gnash raw gnaw rut nut rook nook rag nag rot knot

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lamp ramp lace race lake rake leaf reef lock rock light right load road line rhyme lane rain lamb ram lead read look rook

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rock wok rag wag rig wig rake wake ring wing rink wink run one reel wheel red wed

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ray yay rue U root ute rot yacht rap yap rack yak ram yam

     

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one wag wage walk wall wane ward warn wart watt wave Wayne ways weak wear wee weed week weep west whack whale what wheat wheel wheeze when whip whirl white why wick wife wig will win wind wine wink wipe woe wok woke wonder woo wool word worm worn worse worst wow Y

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pie why pin win pot what pipe wipe pip whip peep weep pen when purse worse page wage pig wig pearl whirl pine wine peel wheel pick wick perm worm Paul wall pull wool pave wave

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bow wow bow woe buy why boo woo bed wed back whack bun one bag wag bite white bale whale bough wow burst worst best west big wig beep weep ball wall bill will bead weed bin win bull wool beet wheat bees wheeze bear wear Ben when bead weed bind wind

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why tie win tin woe toe wipe type one ton wag tag white tight whale tail west test wall tall wick tick wed Ted wheat teat wake take wheeze Ts whip tip week teak wheel teal

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dye why din win dot what dip whip deep weep den when dig wig dine wine deal wheel Dick wick Dave wave dough woe do woo dead wed done one dale whale deed weed dill will din win Ds wheeze dock wok dial while

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cow wow coo woo kite white kale whale keep weep call wall kill will kin win keys wheeze care wear Ken when kind wind cot watt cage wage curl pearl key wee kick wick cord ward

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go woe guy why goo woo gun one gag wag gale whale got what gig wig gave wave gill will ghee wee gall wall gill will

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foe woe fed wed fun one fight white fail whale first worst fig wig fall wall fill will feed weed fin win full wool feet wheat fees wheeze find wind feel wheel fork walk

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vow wow vie why veil whale verse worse vest west Vs wheeze Vaughan warn V wee vet wet vine wine vein Wayne vein wane

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sow wow sew woe sigh why Sue woo said wed sack whack sun one sag wag sight white sale whale seep weep Saul wall sill will seed weed seat wheat Cs wheeze seed weed sip whip sage wage son won save wave sick wick sock wok C wee say weigh sword ward seat wheat sign wine seek week soak woke sink wink

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zoo woo Z wed Z wee Zach zest west Zs wheeze zip whip Zen when zinc wink zit wit

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wok shock well shell wall shawl whip ship wheat sheet wake shake wed shed weep sheep wine shine wave shave Y shy wag shag win shin wade shade whale shale

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win thin wink think wart thought wick thick wonder thunder word third war thaw worn thorn

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we thee why thy wheeze these woes those way they wear their woe though when then where there

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wok hock wall hall whip hip wheat heat wake hake wed head weep heap wine Y hi whale hail woe hoe why high boo who will hill wheat heat ways haze hose woes he wee hay way horn warn horde ward

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wick chick win chin Wayne chain west chest whip chip walk chalk

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weep jeep whale gaol/jail wig jig weigh J wet jet worm germ wade jade

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mow woe my why moo woo Mac whack mite white mail whale mall wall mill will mead weed meat wheat Mick wick mock sock wok me wee May weigh Maud ward mine wine Moke woke men when mink wink meal wheel mile while maid wade mire wire

w

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no woe knack whack night white nail whale nil will need weed neat wheat Nick wick knock wok knee wee neigh weigh nine wine kneel wheel Nile while now wow Ned wed nun sun one nag wag nurse worse nip whip knees wheeze

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lead weed lock wok lick wick light white lyre wire lake wake link wink lead wed let wet late wait leap weep life wife lip whip lei way line wine leak week lay weigh leak weak

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rock wok rag wag rig wig rake wake ring wing rink wink run one reel wheel red wed

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way yay woo U wet yet ward yawn woo ewe wham yam whack yak when yen what yacht

     

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ewe U ute yabby yacht yak Yale yam yank yap yard yawl yawn yay ye year yell yellow yen yes yet yeti yoke yolk you yum yurt

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pot yacht pen yen pay yay Pooh U pet yet pawn yawn Pam yam pack yak

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Ben yen bay yay boo you bet yet back yak Bess yes boot ute born yawn bard yard yank lank

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tot yacht ten yen two U torn yawn tam yam tack yak Tess yes toot ute tell yell tall yawl yank tank

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yacht dot yen den yay day you do yet debt yawn dawn yam dam yell dell yum dumb

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yacht cot yen Ken yay K yawn corn ute coot yawl call yolk coke yurt Kurt

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yet get got yacht yes guess yawl gall yum gum year gear

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fawn yawn fen yen fell yell folk yolk fall yawl Faye yay

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Yale veil year veer yet vet yawn Vaughan

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ute suit yell cell yap sap yum sum yak sack yay say yet set yam Sam yolk soak U Sue ewe Sioux you sue

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ute zoot yap zap yen Zen yak Zach

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U shoe yell shell yawl shawl ewe shoe yurt shirt yawn shorn ute shoot yak shack yabby shabby U shoe ewe shoo you choux yank shank

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yay they yawn thorn yum thumb yanks thanks

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thee ye they yay their year though yo

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who you who ewe hear year hack yak hen yen hot yacht ham yam horn yawn hay yay hoot ute hard yard hello yellow hurt yurt yank hank

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ewe chew year cheer yellow cello yes chess

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yay J yet jet yak jack yolk joke yam jam ute jute yeti jetty yacht jot yell gel

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moo ewe mellow yellow mess yes may yay met yet Mac yak Moke yolk map yap

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nap yap Nell yell knack yak neigh yay net yet knot yacht

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lamb yam lei yay lute ute lawn yawn less yes lard yard lot yacht let yet lap yap yank lank

j

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ray yay rue U root ute rot yacht rap yap rack yak ram yam yank rank

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way yay woo U wet yet warn yawn woo ewe wham yam whack yak when yen what yacht

 

 

This resource page contains many examples of picture-and-word work sheets intended for use in speech-language pathology intervention.

The sheets were made in Microsoft Word, using copyright-free pictures from Microsoft Clip Art and Media and converted into portable document files (pdfs) with Adobe Acrobat.

The vocabulary represents (non-rhotic) Australian English pronunciation, and although most of the words and minimal pairs will 'work' in other dialects of English you may need to discard some. For example, pairs like saw-shore, and spa-star are minimal pairs in Australian English and in other non-rhotic varieties of English, but not in rhotic dialects such as Canadian, Irish, Scottish and most US 'Englishes'.

SLPs/SLTs and students are invited to use these worksheets and other resources when working with children with speech sound disorders. You are free to save them to your computer and to customize them to suit individual clients and to fit your service delivery model. Restrictions that apply to their use are stated in the copyright notice.

Please read this before downloading pdf or pptx files

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On this page you will find pictures and words for minimal pairs in which the contrasts are maximally or nearly maximally opposed. There are more minimal pair and near minimal pair pictures here and here.


How many exemplars?


There are many pictures to choose from here, but in selecting target words for phonological therapy it is definitely not a case of 'more is better'. Elbert, Powell and Swartzlander (1991) found that they could teach as few as 3 to 5 minimal pairs in order for their participants to show spontaneous generalisation to other words containing the target sounds.

Elbert, M., Powell, T. W., & Swartzlander, P.  (1991). Toward a technology of generalization:  How many exemplars are sufficient?  Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 34, 81-87.


Minimal Pairs: Maximal Oppositions


Early, Middle and Late Eight Developing Consonants (Shriberg, 1993)

Early Eight Contrasts

/m/ Contrasts

/m/ vs. /f/ SIWI
man fan mat fat mine fine mail fail meat feet meal feel money funny make fake mix fix mole foal mountain fountain mate fête maid fade

/m/ vs. /s/ SIWI
mine sign mail sale meat seat meal seal money sunny mix six milk silk mouth south mole sole

/m/ vs. 'ch' SIWI
mop chop mat chat mix chicks merry cherry mare chair meter cheetah

/n/ Contrasts

/f/ vs. /n/ SIWI
fat gnat fine nine fail nail feel kneel fight night fit knit foam gnome forty naughty fun nun

/j/ Contrasts

/j/ vs. 'ch' SIWI
ewe chew year cheer yellow cello yes chess

/j/ vs 'dg' SIWI (1)
yam jam yak jack yay! J

/j/ vs. 'dg' SIWI (2)
yay J yet jet yak jack yolk joke yam jam ute jute yeti jetty yacht jot yell gel

/j/ vs. 'sh' SIWI
U shoe yell shell yawl shawl ewe shoe yurt shirt yawn shorn ute shoot yak shack yabby shabby U shoe ewe shoo you choux

/j/ vs. /s/ SIWI
ute suit yell cell yap sap yum sum yak sack yay say yet set yam Sam yolk soak U Sue ewe Sioux you sue

/b/ Contrasts

/b/ vs. /s/ SIWI
bean scene bun sun bee sea beet seat back sack bead seed band sand bale sale balloon saloon bell cell billy silly box socks b-c-b-c-b-c

/b/ vs /f/ SIWI
bus fuss bin fin bite fight big fig bun fun bowl foal ball fall bell fell bone phone bead feed box fox bat fat

/b/ vs /f/ SFWF
cub cuff tub tough rub rough pub puff grub Gruff cob cough Serb surf ebb F

/w/ Contrasts

/w/ vs. 'ch' SIWI
wick chick win chin Wayne chain west chest whip chip walk chalk

/w/ vs. 'dg' SIWI
weep jeep whale gaol/jail wig jig weigh J wet jet worm germ wade jade

/w/ vs. /s/, 'sh' and /f/ SIWI
one sun weed seed wheel seal whale sail wing sing wok sock wink sink well shell wok shock wake shake wall shawl wag shag whip ship wall fall weed feed walk fork wig fig one fun wait fete

/w/ vs. 'sh' SIWI
wok shock well shell wall shawl whip ship wheat sheet wake shake wed shed weep sheep wine shine wave shave Y shy wag shag win shin wade shade whale shale

/d/ Contrasts

/d/ vs /s/ SIWI
dip sip D C dock sock duck suck dough sew die sigh door d sea deep seep

/d/ vs /s/ SFWF
bud bus slide slice mad Mass kid kiss lead lease loud louse

/d/ vs 'sh' SIWI
door shore dip ship dot shot dark shark dock shock dough show dye shy dirt shirt deep sheep

/d/ vs 'sh' SFWF
mad mash hard harsh sad sash blood blush

/p/ Contrasts

/p/ vs. 'dg SIWI
peep jeep pay J pump jump pet jet pug jug punk junk pig jig pail gaol/jail P G  pack jack paid jade pa jar pane Jane poke joke

/p/ vs. /l/ SIWI
pick lick pine line punch lunch pot lot peg leg peach leech peep leap pop lop park lark pay lei pane lane pink link peak leak

/p/ vs. /r/ SIWI
peach reach pane rain peep reap pink rink peak reek pack rack pail rail peel reel pat rat peck wreck pest rest post roast pig rig pocket rocket pool rule pa Rah pug rug Pope rope pen wren pestle wrestle pie rye Ping ring pod rod pose rose

/h/ Contrasts

/t/ vs. /h/ SIWI (1)
teat heat, tip hip, toot hoot, tart heart, till hill, ten hen, toe hoe, tie hi, top hop, tub hub, tug hug

/t/ vs /h/ SIWI (2) Contributed by Stacy Fietz
tea he ten hen tie high two hoo tip hip tear hair

/k/ vs. /h/ SIWI
cart heart corn horn calf half cat hat coal hole cook hook

/g/ vs. /h/ SIWI
gate hate go hoe goal hole

/h/ vs. /r/ SIWI
heap reap hail rail heel reel hat rat host roast hug rug hen wren hose rose hand rand hash rash hoe row hook rook habit rabbit head red hi rye hole roll hope rope hush rush hut rut hot rot hay ray

Middle Eight Contrasts

/t/ Contrasts

/t/ vs. /r/ SIWI
teach reach teak reek tack rack tail rail test rest toast roast tool rule toes rose ta Rah tug rug ten wren tie rye toe row tag rag two roo Ted red toad road

/k/ Contrasts

/k/ vs. /r/ SIWI
kale rail keel reel cat rat coast roast cash rash cook rook coal roll cane rain car Rah king ring code road cake rake case race camp ramp coach roach kite right cut rut cot rot

/k/ vs. /l/ SIWI
cook look cash lash cane lane code load cake lake case lace camp lamp cot lot cap lap kite light kick lick keg leg K lei cab lab calf laugh card lard cast last kid lid

/k/ vs. 'dg' SIWI
cane Jane cot jot K J key G kale gaol/jail car jar cog jog coin join cob job cab jab coot jute

/k/ vs. /z/ SIWI
cap zap coo zoo cone zone key Z kit zit king zing kipper zipper

/k/ vs /v/ SIWI
cast vast cane vein coal vole key V cat vat can van cow vow Kale veil cane vane

/g/ Contrasts

/g/ vs. 'ch' SIWI (1)
guy chai guess chess guest chest gum chum

/g/ vs. /f/ SIWI (1)
gale fail goal foal gate fête gig fig gun fun ghee fee game fame gable fable go foe

/g/ vs. /f/ SIWI (2)
go foe game fame Gus fuss gate fete gold fold gale fail goal foal gig fig gun fun ghee fee gable fable

/g/ vs. /s/
go sew game same Guy sigh gum sum give sieve gold sold gun sun ghee C goal sole gale sail gap sap

Late Eight Contrasts

/r/ Contrasts

/s/ vs. /r/ SIWI
sail rail seal reel sand rand sash rash sew row soap rope sing ring sink rink sack rack sock rock sale rail sip rip

/r/ vs. /d/ SIWI
rock dock roar door rig dig ray day rip dip Rome dome run done reel deal red dead ram dam rice dice wreck deck rug Doug rust dust row dough


New to maximal oppositions? Read on...


Place-Voice-Manner Chart


Consonants are classified in terms of their place of articulation, manner of articulation and voicing. The chart at the foot of this page is a PVM Chart showing the consonants of English. The voiced glide /w/ is included twice because it has two places of articulation, bilabial and velar. The glottal stop is also there because it occurs in some dialects of English.


Place of Articulation


Consonants are made by obstructing or constricting airflow at some point in the vocal tract. The point of obstruction or constriction is called the place of articulation. The ‘places’ of articulation are Bilabial, Labiodental, Interdental, Alveolar, Palatal, Velar and Glottal. Note that there are other classification systems that differ slightly.


Manner of Articulation


Consonants are classified in terms of their Place-Manner-Voice. The manner of articulation is the type of obstruction that occurs in the production of a particular consonant. The ‘manners’ of articulation are: Stop, Fricative, Affricate, Nasal, Liquid and Glide. The Stops, Fricatives and Affricates are termed obstruents, and the Nasals, Liquids, Glides, AND VOWELS are termed sonorants. The consonants /l/, /r/, /w/ and /j/ are also referred to as approximants.


Non-Major Class Distinctions


The Non-Major Class Distinctions are in place: differentiating labial, coronal and dorsal consonants; in manner: differentiating stops, fricatives, affricates, nasals, liquids, glides; and in voice: differentiating the voiced-voiceless cognate pairs.


Major Class Features


Major Class Features distinguish between the main groupings of sounds in a language: consonants vs. vowels, glides vs. consonants, and obstruents (stops, fricatives, and affricates) vs. sonorants (nasals, liquids, glides, and vowels).

Bake-make illustrates a major class distinction between obstruents and sonorants; make-wake illustrates the major class distinction between consonants and glides.

In the minimal pair silly-billy the contrast is not quite maximal, but it is ‘maximal enough’ to be highly salient for a child receiving intervention. In silly-billy we have labial /b/ vs. coronal /s/, stop /b / vs. fricative /s/, voiced /b/ vs. voiceless /s/, and unmarked /b/ vs. marked /s/. It crosses many featural dimensions but /b/ and /s/ are obstruents so there is no obstruent vs. sonorant opposition (i.e., no Major Class Feature distinction).


Maximal Opposition


A maximal opposition cuts across many featural dimensions. For example the word pair bun-sun differs in place (labial is distinct from coronal), manner (stop is distinct from fricative) and voice (/b/ is voiced and /s/ is voiceless). The contrast fat-gnat is in place, manner, voice and major class (/f/ is an obstruent and /n/ is sonorant), and markedness (/f/ is marked, /n/ is not).


Target Selection and Maximal Oppositions

"Known" vs. maximally distinct "unknown" sound


In the Maximal Oppositions approach (Gierut, 1989, 2001, 2007) Minimal Pair therapy the treatment sets consists of words that are minimally contrasted and which have maximal or near maximal feature differences between each word pair. One word in a pair represents a sound the child "knows" (can say at word level) and the other represents a sound the child does not know (cannot say).

For example, a child may "know" /m/ and be able to say words like man, mat and mine. However, the same child may be unable to say /f/ as in fan, fat and fine. The consonants /f/ and /m/ are maximally opposed as follows.

Non-Major Class Distinctions
Place NO - /m/ and /f/ are both labial, however /m/ is bilabial and /f/ is labiodental
Voice YES - /m/ is voiced and /f/ is voiceless
Manner YES - /m/ is nasal and /f/ is fricative
Major Class Features
Obstruent vs. Sonorant YES - /m/ is sonorant and /f/ is obstruent
Markedness
Unmarked (simple) vs. Marked (complex) YES - /m/ is unmarked and /f/ is marked

/m/ vs. /f/ SIWI
man fan mat fat mine fine mail fail meat feet meal feel money funny make fake mix fix mole foal mountain fountain mate fête maid fade

Employing this target selection strategy, Gierut and co-workers have demonstrated widespread cross-system generalisation in suitable children with phonological disorder.


References


Gierut, J. (1989). Maximal opposition approach to phonological treatment. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 54, 9-19. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD from the LEARNABILITY PROJECT website.

Gierut, J. (2001). Complexity in phonological treatment: Clinical factors. Language, Speech, and Hearing in Schools, 32, 229-241. CLICK HERE TO DOWNLOAD from the LEARNABILITY PROJECT website.

Gierut, J. (2007). Phonological complexity and language learnability. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16(1), 6-17. CLICK HERE


The "Freebies" pages on the 1998-2011 web site have been replaced on the new site by the RESOURCES INDEX.

Click on the word 'RESOURCES' and scoll down. The RESOURCES tab appears at the top of every page of this site. You will see it above, to the left of the three flannel flowers.

There, you will find links to child speech assessment and intervention resources including many new picture and word worksheets for working with children with speech sound disorders. 

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Word and Picture Worksheets

Word Lists: Minimal Pairs
Worksheets: Consonants, Clusters, Vowels

Worksheets: Complexity; Lexical Properties, Markedness, SSP, Phonotactics, Facilitative Contexts

Worksheets: Contrasts; Minimal Pairs; Near Minimal Pairs

Worksheets: Revisions and Repairs and the fixed-up-one routine

Worksheets: Within Word ("Medial") Consonants
Worksheets: Maximal Oppositions (Minimal Pairs)
Worksheets: Long Words


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Substitution Processes (Systemic Processes)

SIWI minimal pairs
/t/ vs. voiceless affricate

SIWI minimal pairs
/s/ vs. voiceless affricate

SFWF minimal pairs stops vs. palatal fricative and affricates

tear chair
tease cheese
tin chin
top chop
talk chalk
ticks chicks
tiled child
tip chip
tips chips
tore chore
two chew

sore chore
sum chum
sip chip
sick  chick
sat chat
Sue chew
silly chilly
soak choke
suck chuck
sill chill
search church

rat rash
out ouch
write rice
cat catch
late lace
hut hush
mat match
road rose
head hedge
hit hiss
coat coach

SIWI minimal pairs voiced vs. voiceless alveolar stops

SIWI minimal pairs voiced vs. voiceless affricates

SIWI minimal pairs voiceless velar stops vs. alveolar stops

deer tear
die tie
din tin
doll toll
door tore
doze toes
dent tent
dead Ted
dim Tim

jeer cheer
joke choke
jeep cheap
Jane chain
jaw chore
jump chump
jest chest
gin chin
Jess chess

car tar
core tore
cape tape
cub tub
cool tool
cap tap
key tea
call tall
corn torn

SIWI min pairs voiced velar vs. voiced alveolar stops

SIWI minimal triplets
voiceless fricatives

SIWI minimal pairs
/k/ vs. /g/

gaze daze (days)
gig dig
go doe (dough)
game dame
gust dust
gum dumb
gash dash
grip drip
grab drab
groan drone
gate date
got dot
Guy die (dye) 
guide died

sort fort short
sore four shore
sign fine shine
sell fell shell
seat feet sheet

cap gap
gate Kate
game came
gum come
coat goat
coast ghost
cot got

SFWF minimal pairs
/d/ vs. /t/

SFWF minimal pairs
/k/ vs. /g/

SFWF minimal pairs
/p/ vs. /b/

cord caught
bird Bert
wade wait
wed wet
bad bat
bead beat
ride write
sad sat
hid hit
sword sort
pod pot
feed feet
road wrote
weed wheat

peck peg
buck bug
pick pig
lock log
back bag
stack stag
tack tag

cup cub
nip nib
cap cab
lap lab
rope robe

SIWI minimal pairs
voiceless vs. voiced

SIWI minimal pairs
/h/ vs. /t/

SIWI minimal pairs
/h/ vs. /f/

peach beach
town down
fan van
pole bowl
peas bees
pie buy (bye)
pear bear
sip zip
pig big
tore door

hop top
hall tall
horn torn
high tie
hose toes
hair tear
hen ten
hot tot

hat fat
hit fit
hold fold
hive five
hall fall
horse force
hall fall
heel feel
hole foal
hairy fairy

SIWI minimal pairs
/h/ vs. ‘sh’

SIWI minimal pairs
/s/ vs. /h/

SIWI minimal pairs
/l/ vs. /s/

hall shawl
head shed
horn Sean
horn Shawn
harp sharp
hop shop
hook shook
high shy
hut shut
heap sheep
hoe show
hair share
heat sheet
hip ship

sauce horse
soup hoop
sold hold
side hide
sit hit
sand hand
suit hoot
sole hole
soap hope
seat heat
sip hip
seal heel

line sign
low sew
lock sock
long song
lick sick
lip sip
lend send
lift sift
lead seed
look sook

SIWI minimal pairs
/w/ vs. /r/

SIWI minimal pairs
/f/ vs. /w/

SIWI minimal pairs
/v/ vs. /w/

one run
wig rig
wing ring
wok rock
whale rail
wake rake
weed read
witch rich
wave rave
west rest

feel wheel
fig wig
fight white
fork walk
fall wall
fish wish
feel wheel
full wool
fail whale
fade wade

vest west
veil whale
vine wine
vet wet
volley Wally
veal wheel
Vic wick

SFWF minimal pairs
‘sh’ vs. ‘ch’

SIWI minimal pairs
‘sh’ vs. ‘ch’

SIWI minimal pairs
/l/ vs. /d/

mash match
dish ditch
wish witch
wash watch
cash catch
hush hutch
crush crutch
marsh march

shops chops
shoes choose
ships chips
share chair
Shane chain
shin chin
sheep cheep
shock chock

lots dots
log dog
lazy daisy
leap deep
love dove

SIWI minimal pairs
/n/ vs. /l/

SIWI minimal pairs
/f/ vs. /d/

SIWI minimal pairs
/s/ vs. ‘sh’

knead lead
nip lip
night light
name lame
knock lock
neigh lay
no low
nine line
knot lot
nap lap

file dial
fish dish
fan Dan
four door
five dive
foam dome
fig dig
 

suit shoot
sock shock
sore shore
sip ship
sack shack
sour shower
seat sheet
Sue shoe
 

SIWI minimal pairs
/s/ vs. /f/

SIWI minimal pairs
/s/ vs. /f/

SIWI minimal pairs
/n/ vs. ‘sh’

sold fold
sauce force
sort fort
six fix
sit fit
sole foal
cell fell
sole foal
sore four

sun fun
seed feed
sound found
seat feet
seal feel
socks fox
saw four
sunny funny
sat fat
sign fine

gnaw shore
knee she
nip ship
nine shine
neat sheet
nut shut
no show
knock shock

SIWI minimal pairs
/w/ vs. /l/

SIWI minimal pairs
/w/ vs. /l/

SIWI minimal pairs
/s/ vs. ‘sh’

wok lock
wine line
weed lead
white light
week leek
weigh lay
wet let 
wick lick 

why lie
wake lake
wait late
weep leap
wink link
Wally lolly

sign shine
sew show
sip ship
saw shore
sock shock
 

SIWI minimal pairs
/n/ vs. /s/

SFWF minimal pairs
/n/ vs. ‘ng’

SIWI minimal pairs
‘th’ vs. /f/

gnaw saw
nine sign
nails sails
kneel seal
neat seat
nip sip
knock sock
no sew

Ron wrong
pin Ping
win wing
thin thin
 

thin fin
thaw four
thought fort
thread Fred
thorn fawn
three free
thirst first

SIWI minimal pairs
/v/ vs. /b/

SIWI minimal pairs
/l/ vs. /j/

 

vase bars
vest best
vat bat
V B (Vee-Bee)
vote boat
van ban
vow bow
very berry

lawn yawn
Lou you
lap yap
less yes
lucky yucky
luck yuck

 

Structural Processes (Syllable Structure Processes)

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /p/ vs. /sp/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /l/ vs. /sl/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /s/ vs. /sk/

pie spy
peach speech
pot spot
pit spit
pin spin
pill spill

leap sleep
lip slip
low slow

sails scales
sip skip
see ski
sore score

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /s/ vs. /st/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /t/ vs. /st/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /t/ vs. /st/ SFWF

sick stick
sack stack
seal steal
soup stoop

take stake
talk stork
tar star
tack stack
top stop
tool stool
tick stick
 

beat Beast
Bert burst
wet west
coat coast
goat ghost
wait waist
net nest
pet pest
feet feast
vet vest

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /w/ vs. /sw/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /k/ vs. /sk/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /n/ vs. /sn/

wing swing
weep sweep
well swell
wheat sweet
witch switch

key ski
cat scat
car scar
core score
cool school

nail snail
knees sneeze
no snow
nought Snort
nap snap

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /m/ vs. /sm/

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /l/ vs. l-cluster

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /r/ vs. /tr/

Mog smog
mash smash
mall small
mile smile
Mac smack

low glow
lip flip
lap clap
loud cloud
lock block
leap sleep
lean clean
lime climb
low blow
love glove

rash trash
ray tray
rim trim
rain train
rack track
Rick trick

Near minimal pairs singleton vs. cluster /r/ vs. r-cluster

Minimal pairs cluster vs. cluster /sk/ vs. /st/

 

root fruit
rat brat
red bread
rip drip
rain train
row throw

scoop stoop
school stool
scout stout
score store
sky sty
skate state
skill still
scamp stamp

 

Clusters SIWI

/skr/ SIWI
scream screen scratch scrub screw

/str/ SIWI
stream string strawberries strum streetlight street strong straight struggle stretch strict strain stripes

/kr/ SIWI
crash crawl crutches crab cry crayon crane crack crumb cross crew crow crowd crown

/gr/ SIWI
green grass greet grapes grouch grow Grover great grin grill

/tr/ SIWI
triangle track trash tractor train treasure trick trumpet tree trolley truck trap trio tray trim trophy

/dr/ SIWI
dream draw drive drum dragon dress drop drill drip drink

/br/ SIWI
Bradley Bruce Brett Brendan Brian bricks brown bronco branch bright bread broken broom bride branches break breaking Bryony Brenda Briane Bronnie Brianna

/sp/ SIWI
speech spill spit space spade spark Spice Girls spot sponge spud spoon spider Spiderman spine spire spy

/st/ SIWI
steam stick stay stairs steps stag star stop stamp stone stork stoop sty stir stool

/pr/ SIWI
prince princess pram prawn prune pretty proud price prize

/kl/ SIWI
clean Clag clock cloth clog club claw clothes clever close clown cloud climb

/fl/ SIWI
fleece flea flip flake flame flag flat flash fly flock flute floor float flower

/sm/ SIWI
smell small smart smash smog smudge smoke smile

/sn/ SIWI
snail sneeze snip Sneeches snake snap snooze snow snore snort

Near minimal pairs final consonant Inclusion

Near minimal pairs final consonant inclusion

Near minimal pairs final consonant inclusion

tea team
tie tide
hoe hope
play plane
car calf
pea peep
shoe shoot
low load

high hide
see seat
shoe shoot
she sheep
cow couch
sore sort
sea seed
low load
say save

buy bike
sew soap
ow! out
bee beach
pie pile
row road
moo move
car card

Near minimal pairs initial consonant inclusion /h/

Near minimal pairs initial consonant inclusion /f/

Near minimal pairs initial consonant inclusion /k/

"A" hay
"E" he
"I" high
"O" hoe
("U" who - yoo-hoo)
eye high
air hair
old hold
eel heel
art heart
edge hedge

arm farm
eel feel
in fin
air fair
oar four
ace face
eat feet
ill fill
oh foe
ox fox
ale fail

"R" car
art cart
ache cake
oar core
ape cape
air care
old cold
aim came
ill kill
arm calm
off cough

Near minimal pairs initial consonant inclusion ‘sh’

Near minimal pairs initial consonant inclusion /s/

Near minimal pairs initial consonant inclusion /t/

shower hour
share air
shy eye
shake ache
shape ape
shawl all
shell "L
shout out

seal eel
sell "L"
seat eat
sad add
soak oak
sold old
saw oar
soil oil
sour hour

in tin
eye tie
ache take
aim tame
air tear
ape tape
old told
art tart

Near minimal pairs initial consonant  inclusion

us bus
ape tape
out shout
eye pie
eel peel
air chair
ache take
old fold

 

 

Vowel contrasts

'er' vs. 'or'
bored bird / cord curd / Paul pearl / bought Bert / short shirt / torn turn /call curl  / lawn learn /walk work / warm worm / fawn fern / born burn / a bored bird / a warm worm / a short shirt / a coarse curse

Regarding 'er'!   In Australian English /r/ is not pronounced in pearl, shirt, etc.
pearl shirt purse purr bird burn burst term turn dirt curve girl fern fur third thirst search serve sir shirt chirp church nurse nerdlearn worm squirm search hurt earth surf

Vowel Contrasts
cub cab / rush rash/ cub cab/rush rash /truck track /bud bad /cut cat /hut hat /mud mad / bug bag /cup cap /fun fan

Vowel Contrasts
duck - deck /bunch - bench /bug - beg /nut - net /money - many /bud - bed

Singletons SIWI

/p/ SIWI
pea peach peel peep pig pick pill Po pink paint paste pay peck peg pen pest pet pan park poor pool post purr pie pile Piglet Pooh Percy

/b/ SIWI
bee beach bead bean beat big beak bin bear Barbie Barney Barney bell 'baby bird's balloon' 'baby bird' bed best back bus boot book ball bowl bone bore bored Bobo bird bike buy bite Big Bird Babar but butt
bad bud beard bead bird bed

/t/ SIWI
teach tease team tent tick tin tip tail Ted tell tack tap top tape toe tie toll talk torch tear tore tall town tight Tinky Winky Thomas Terence

/d/ SIWI
dig dip dish ditch Dipsy die deck duck doll dark dot desk door dome dirt dial dice dive

/k/SIWI
key king kiss cage Ken cake Kate case cab calf cow cash cap car card corn comb come cool cook coach coast coat

/g/ SIWI
goose game gate girl gum goat gold gown go ghost Gordon

/h/ SIWI
he heap 'Rat in a Hat' Henry heat heel hill hip hit hiss hair head hen hand hat heart hop hot hug hut hoop hush hook hoe hold high hole hose horse hawk hope horn hide hive Happy

/f/ SIWI
feast feed feel feet fig fin fit fish fair fall fan fat farm fast fun food foal foot phone force fork four fern fight file fine fire five Fred

/v/ SIWI
vase vest vet van vat vote voice vine Vegemite 'Vera Violet Vinn'

/s/ SIWI
seal sit seat sock seed sum sick sun sing suit sail sew same soap sell soak sack sold sad salt sip sauce sink saw sea sort sword side Sam-I-Am Celeste

/z/ SIWI
zip zoo zoom Zac zed zebra

'sh'  SIWI
she sheep sheet shin ship shake shape shave shed shell shack shut sharp shock shop shoot shoe shine shawl shore shirt short shout shy Shawn

'th' SIWI
thief thick thin thing think thank thatch thong thud thumb thump thaw thought third thirst thigh

'ch' SIWI
cheep cheek cheese cheer chick chin chip chase chair chest chimp chat chop chew choose chalk chore child Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang

'J' SIWI
jeans jeep Jack jar jam jet jug jump juice jelly joke Jeff

/w/ SIWI
week weed weep wheat wheel whip wick wig win wind wing whale waist wait wake wave weigh web wet well west wag one won wash watch wok wood wolf walk wall Wilma warm whirl work worm world Wally Waldo Wanda why wine wipe wire

/j/ SIWI
year yell yes yak yap yacht yard young yuk yum you yolk yawn Yolanda

/l/ SIWI
lead leap leaf lick leek lift lean Laa Laa lid lace lame late lay let lamb lap last lock log love lunch lasso letter ladder look loaf load low long learn little loud lion lie light line like lime Lulu

/r/ SIWI
read rich rig rim Robin Rattie Rat ring rip wrist race rage rail rain rake ray red rack rock Ron run roof room rope robe rose row Ronald wrong round rice ride write Rin-Tin-Tin

The Teddies in Bananas in Pyjamas are Amy, Morgan and Lulu. The Bananas are B1 and B2, and the other main character is The Rat in a Hat.

/m/ SIWI
me meal mean meet Mickey Minnie milk mail make men man map march mud moo moon move mouse mice

/n/ SIWI
knead neat knit nib nip name nail neigh neck nap knock knot none nut nose gnaw nurse noise knife nice nine

/b/ vs. /t/ and /b/ vs. /d/ CVCs
boat beat bite boot beet beat bat Bert bit bought bait

No final consonant in Australian and NZ English

pea pay Pooh paw purr pie pow poi Pa
bee bay boo bore burr buy bow boy bar bow
tea two tore tie toy ta toe
"D" day do door die dough
key Kay coo core cur cow coy car
gay goo guy go
four fur far foe
"V" vie vow
sea say Sue sore sir sigh sow soy sew
zoo zee
she shoe shore shy show
he hay who her high how hoe
chew chore
"G" "J" jaw joy jar Joe
me May moo more my Ma
knee neigh gnaw now  no
lay Lou law lie low
we way woo war why wow woe
ray roo raw rye Roy row

No initial consonant

ape
up
ebb
eat
it
eight
out
ought
odd
Orc
ouch
age
edge
urge
aim

"M"
in
on
add
aid
ache
oak
egg
if
off
ace
ass
"S"
us
ice

eyes
ash
each
itch
urn
own
eel
ill
ale
all
owl
oil
ink
end
arm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metalinguistic Cues and Imagery


All interventions for speech sound disorders incorporate the use of metalinguistic cues and imagery. For example, in the butterfly procedure for lateral and palatal substitutions (e.g., lateral-s) the child is 'cued' to assume the position for /i/ ('ee') and imagine the tongue as a butterfly's wings 'grooving', and 'bracing' against the teeth.

This slide show and handout suggest, for a range of targets:

  • IMAGERY NAMES provided by parent or clinician and possibly modified by the child;
  • VERBAL CUES provided by parent or clinician and possibly modified by the child;
  • GESTURE CUES provided by an adult (parent / clinician / 'helper').

Slide Show and Handout


Metalinguistic cues and imagery slide show - ppsx - opens in a new window

Metalinguistic cues and imagery handout - 1-page pdf

Can't open the ppsx slide shows? Go to Slide Show Help

x

 


Revisions and Repairs


The "fixed-up-one" routine is a metalinguistic technique that enables adults to talk simply to children about making revisions and repairs and how to do so. Scripts are provided to families to introduce them to the technique.

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On this page you will find two slide shows explaining the fixed-up-one technique and scripts for substutution processes, syllable structure processes, and vowel replacement.


Slide Shows


Fixed-up-One Routine - Revisions and Repairs (8 slides)

Fixed-up-One Routine - Revisions and Repairs (21 Slides)

Can't open the ppsx slide shows? Go to Slide Show Help


Scripts


Substitution Processes

Fixed-up-One Routine for Interdental /s/ and /z/  (soup ⇒ thoup, zebra ⇒ thebra)

Fixed-up-One Routine for Gliding of /l/ (/w/ vs. /l/ lock ⇒ wok)

Fixed-up-One Routine for Velar Fronting (car ⇒ tar) (1)

Fixed-up-one Routine for Velar Fronting (car ⇒ tar, girl ⇒ derl) (2)

Fixed-up-One Routine for Stopping of the fricative /f/ (fork ⇒ pork)

Fixed-up-One-Routine for Gliding of /f/ (fork ⇒ walk)

Fixed-up-One Routine for /s/ vs /h/ (seal ⇒ heel)

Fixed-up-one-Routine for Palatal Fronting (shower ⇒ sour)

Fixed-up-one Routine for Backing of Alveolar Stops (tin ⇒ kin, doll ⇒ goll)

Syllable Structure Processes

Fixed-up-One Routine for Final Consonant Deletion (bike ⇒ buy)

Fixed-up-One Routine for /sn/ Cluster Reduction (snail ⇒ nail)

Fixed-up-One Routine for Weak Syllable Deletion (computer ⇒ puter)

Fixed-up-one Routine for for the Adjuncts /sp/, /st/, /sk/ (stop ⇒ top)

Fixed-up-one-Routine for /sn and /sm/ (snail ⇒ nail, smoke ⇒ moke)

Vowel Replacements

Fixed-up-One-Routine for OR vs ER (bird ⇒ bored)

Fixed-up-one Routine for E as in Ben vs U as in bun (deck ⇒ duck)


References


Bowen, C. (1996). Evaluation of a phonological therapy with treated and untreated groups of young children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Macquarie University.

Bowen, C. (1998). Developmental phonological disorders: A practical guide for families and teachers. Melbourne: The Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd.

Bowen, C. & Cupples, L. (1998). A tested phonological therapy in practice. Child Language Teaching and Therapy, 14(1), 29-50.

Bowen, C. & Cupples, L. (1999). Parents and children together (PACT): a collaborative approach to phonological therapy. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 34(1), 35-55.

On this page you will find child speech assessments and related materials. They include Debbie James' Clinically Useful Words, Aubrey Nunes' Diagnostic Words, John Locke's Speech Perception Task, Caroline Bowen's Quick Screener and Quick Vowel Screener, Amy Meredith's Speech Characteristics Rating Form, Thomas Powell and Adele Miccio's Stimulability Assessment, and Robert Lowe's Alpha Test of Phonology.

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DOWNLOADING RESOURCES?
Please avoid downloading the same file multiple times as it increases my bandwidth usage and drives up my costs. Choose a pdf or pptx file; download it once, and save it to a folder. If you find the free resources here useful, and would like to make your secure donation to the maintenance of this site, please click here, and then click on the DONATE BUTTON.

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Please LINK to THIS PAGE. Do not link directly to the PDFs of pictures and test forms. Do not upload the PDFs of pictures and test forms to your site.


Clinically Useful Words


Download

  1. Clinically Useful Words Black and White - 1-page pdf
  2. Clinically Useful Words Black and White - 3-page pdf
  3. Clinically Useful Words Colour - 2-page pdf

 

About the words

In her doctoral research Dr Debbie James from South Australia found ten long words that were particularly 'clinically useful' in revealing speech production difficulties in children. The words were: ambulance, hippopotamus, computer, spaghetti, vegetables, helicopter, animals, caravan, caterpillar and butterfly.

References

James, D. G. H. (2006). Hippopotamus is so hard to say: Children's acquisition of polysyllabic words. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Sydney, Sydney.

James, D. G. H. (2009). The relationship between the underlying representation and surface form of long words. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 329-334. OUT OF PRINT

James, D. G. H. (2015). The relationship between the underlying representation and surface form of multisyllabic words. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders, Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 439-443.

Aubrey Nunes' Diagnostic Words

Nunes provides an alternative collection of words which he calls diagnostic words. (Nunes, A. (1993). Unpublished paper, 1993 Child Language Seminar, Plymouth: University of Plymouth). The words are: animal, archeopteryx,  asbestos, calculator, cardigan, Geronimo, hippopotamus, hospital, Jerusalem, magnet, monopoly, Pentagon, soldier, spaghetti and yellow. There is a related discussion thread on the phonologicaltherapy list.


Locke Task


Download

The Locke Speech Perception - Speech Production Task Record Form 2-page pdf

Slide Show about Constructing and Administering the Locke Task (10-slide pdf)

European Portuguese version of the Locke Task by Dr Marisa Lusada NEW December 2016

Turkish version of the Locke Task, Aysin Noyan-Erbaş and Esra Özcebe (2017) NEW October 2017

John L Locke

About the task

In an individual client it is possible that one or more errors are due to the child’s inability to hear the difference between his or her customary production and the target correctly produced, but this difficulty may not be readily apparent. Dr John Locke’s (1980) procedure takes the guesswork out of trying to decide whether a child actually can hear the difference between error and target, at word level, when these are spoken by an adult in word contexts.

 

 

References

Bowen, C. (2015). Children's speech sound disorders, Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 391-392.

Locke, J. L. (1980). The inference of speech perception in the phonologically disordered child. Part II: Some clinically novel procedures, their use, some findings. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 45, 445-468.


Quick Screener

A Quick Test of Articulation and Phonology


Download

  1. Quick Screener Stimulus Pictures/Prompts 44-page pdf
  2. Quick Screener Stimulus Pictures/Prompts (ppsx) 45 slides
  3. Record and analysis forms - Australian English vowels 2-page pdf
  4. Record and analysis forms - NZ English vowels 2-page pdf
  5. Record form - add your own vowel symbols (for your variety of English) 1-page pdf
  6. Analysis form 1-page pdf

About the screener

In PACT Therapy (Bowen, 2009, 2010, 2015; Bowen & Cupples, 2006) for children with phonological disorder, Parent Education, one of the five components of PACT, starts with the administration of the Quick Screener (or the SLP/SLT’s procedure of choice). This happens early in the assessment and therapy process. Parent(s) watch the testing and the scoring, and these are discussed.

The aim of having parents involved in independent analysis of the child's single word screening sample is to help them see the therapist's focus on the systematic nature of phonology as opposed to a sound-by-sound orientation. The screener is re-administered periodically to allow parents an objective means of tracking and appreciating their own child's progress.

The screener can be used with the original Dean, Howell, Hill and Waters (1990) easel book on which the stimulus items are based, or the picture slide show or pdf above can be used.

References

Bowen, C. (2010). Parents and Children Together (PACT) Intervention for Children with Speech Sound Disorders. In A. L. Williams, S. McLeod, & R. J. McCauley (Editors), Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Baltimore, MA: Paul H. Brookes.

Bowen, C. (2009). Children's speech sound disorders. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 298-301. OUT OF PRINT

Bowen, C. (2015). Children's speech sound disorders, Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 416-419; 432-436.

Bowen, C. & Cupples, L. (2006). PACT: Parents and children together in phonological therapy. Advances in Speech Language Pathology, 8(3), 282-292.

Dean, E., Howell, J., Hill, A., & Waters, D. (1990). Metaphon Resource Pack. Windsor, Berks: NFER Nelson. OUT OF PRINT

Citation

Cite the Quick Screener as: Bowen, C. (1996). The Quick Screener retrieved on DATE from www.speech-language-therapy.com


Quick Vowel Screener


Download

  1. Vowel Screener 2010 - 11-page pdf
    Picture stimuli - see details below*
  2. Vowel Screener 2010 Slide Show (ppsx) 44 slides
    Picture stimuli
  3. Vowel Screener - Australia - Harrington, Cox & Evans Symbols 1-page pdf
    General Australian English
  4. Vowel Screener - Mitchell & Delbridge Symbols 1-page pdf
    'Educated'/'Cultivated' Australian
  5. Vowel Screener - New Zealand - Maclagan Symbols 1-page pdf
    New Zealand English
  6. Vowel Screener - no phonetic symbols (black & white) 1-page pdf
    Insert your own symbols for your client's English
  7. Vowel Screener - no phonetic symbols (colour) 5-page pdf
    Insert your own symbols for your client's English

Vowel Screener 2010 - 11 pages*

Page 1
On this page the phonetic symbols are for General Australian English (Harrington, Cox & Evans, 1997).

Page 2
On this page the phonetic symbols are for Educated/Cultivated Australian English (Mitchell, 1946; Mitchell & Delbridge 1965).

Page 3
On this page the phonetic symbols are for New Zealand English (Maclagan, 2009).

Pages 4-7
On these pages are larger pictures and the phonetic symbols are for General Australian English (Cox, 2012; Harrington, Cox and Evans, 1997).

Pages 8-11
On these pages are four picture stimuli for each vowel. There are no phonetic symbols on these pages so that SLPs/SLTs can write in symbols that reflect the variety of English spoken by the individual whose speech is being assessed.

References

Cox, F., (2012) Australian English: Pronunciation and Transcription, Cambridge University Press.

Harrington, J., Cox, F., & Evans, Z. (1997). An acoustic study of broad, general and cultivated Australian English vowels, Australian Journal of Linguistics, 17, 155-184.

Maclagan, M. (2009). Reflecting connections with the local language: New Zealand English, International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 11(2), 113-121.

Mitchell, A.G. (1946). The Pronunciation of English in Australia. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.

Mitchell, A. G. & Delbridge, A. (1965). The pronunciation of English in Australia (revised edition). Sydney: Angus & Robinson.

Phonetic (Narrow) Transcription of Australian English
Phonemic (Broad) Transcription of Australian English

Citation

Cite the Quick Vowel Screener as: Bowen, C. (2010). The Quick Vowel Screener, retrieved on DATE from www.speech-language-therapy.com


Quick Screener for Teachers


Download

  1. Quick Screener Stimulus Pictures/Prompts 44-page pdf
  2. Quick Screener Stimulus Pictures/Prompts (ppsx) 45 slides
  3. Record Form (with phonetic transcription) - 1-page pdf
  4. Record Form (with phonetic transcription) and sceening prompt - 2-page pdf
  5. Notes relating to the 3 slide shows below, Record Form (without phonetic transcription) and screening prompt 4-page pdf
  6. Slide Show 1 IDENTIFICATION 24 slides - ppsx - opens in a new window
    This is the first of three slide shows for Speech-Language Pathologists / Speech and Language Therapists to use when communicating with teachers and psychologists about children with speech sound disorders. This one is about identifying children who might be candidates for screening.
  7. Slide Show 2 SCREENING 14 slides ppsx - opens in a new window
    This is the second of three slide shows for Speech-Language Pathologists / Speech and Language Therapists to use when communicating with teachers and psychologists about children with speech sound disorders. This one is about the screening procedure.
  8. Slide Show 3 COMMUNICATING WITH PARENTS 17 slides ppsx - opens in a new window
    This is the third of three slide shows for Speech-Language Pathologists  / Speech and Language Therapists to use when communicating with teachers and psychologists about children with speech sound disorders. This one is about teachers/psychologists communicating with a child's parents about speech screening.

Citation

Cite the Quick Screener for Teachers as: Bowen, C. (2006). The Quick Screener for Teachers, retrieved on DATE from www.speech-language-therapy.com


Speech Characteristics Rating Form SCRF


Download

Speech Characteristics Rating Form (SCRF) 1-page pdf

About the SCRF

Standardised tests are integral components of core test-batteries, and necessary when qualifying children for services, but are limited in usually only addressing segmental (phonetic) performance and phonemic organisation. The errors of children with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) are not exclusively segmental or phonological (Highman, 2009), posing an assessment challenge.

The speech characteristics rating form was created by Dr Amy Skinder-Meredith in response to this challenge, allowing a thorough, more encompassing, suprasegmental view of a child’s output. As clinicians, we know that some children progress well with phonetic production accuracy while remaining poorly intelligible due to some combination of atypical prosody, resonance, voice quality and fluency. Moreover, disordered prosody in CAS is a prominent research finding (Shriberg, Aram, and Kwiatkowski, 1997a, b, c; Velleman and Shriberg, 1999).

Reference

Skinder-Meredith, A. E. (2015). Speech characteristics rating form. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders, Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 312-318.

Skinder-Meredith, A. E. (2009). Speech characteristics rating form. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 227-233. OUT OF PRINT


Stimulability Assessment


Download

Stimulability Assessment 1-page pdf

About the assessment

The term stimulability assessment refers to a dynamic evaluation (Strand, 2009) wherein a clinician provides verbal, visual, tactile or auditory cues to determine if the child is able to adequately produce a sound or syllable structure with clinician support and scaffolding (Miccio, 2009; Glaspey and Stoel-Gammon, 2007). Use this form to assess stimulability of consonants in isolation and to two syllable positions.

References

Miccio, A. W. (2015). First things first: Stimulability therapy for children with small phonetic repertoires. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders, Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 177-182.

Powell, T. W., & Miccio, A. W. (1996). Stimulability: A useful clinical tool. Journal of Communication Disorders, 29, 237-253.


The ALPHA Test of Phonology

Assessment Link between Articulation and Phonology


Download

  1. ALPHA Analysis Forms 5-page pdf
  2. ALPHA Picture Stimuli 53-page pdf
  3. ALPHA Examiner's Manual 22-page pdf
  4. ALPHA Tables 1-15 18-page pdf
  5. ALPHA Matrix 1-page pdf
  6. ALPHA Sentence Stimuli 1-page pdf
  7. ALPHA Test Sentences 1-page pdf
  8. NEW: 2013 Picture Stimuli in colour courtesy of Hazem R. Al Ismail

Copyright Notice and Permission

As sole owner of the copyright, on this day, December 1, 2009, I give my permission to professionals or students in the field of speech-language pathology to use the ALPHA Test of Phonology with the stipulation that the test will not be sold and if distributed will include the author’s identifying information.

Robert J. Lowe, Ph.D.
ALPHA Speech and Language Resources
Box 322
Mifflinville, PA 18631, USA
570-752-2166
Fax: 570-752-8432
email: rjlowe34 @ gmail.com

About the assessment


The ALPHA provides two assessments using a delayed sentence imitation format.

  • First, the ALPHA provides a traditional sound-in-position assessment looking at initial and final consonant production.
  • Second, if enough sound errors are present, the sample can be analyzed for the presence of phonological processes.

Each of fifty target words is embedded in a short sentence. Following the examiner's sentence model and presentation of a stimulus picture, the subject repeats the stimulus sentence as the examiner transcribes the target word produced by the subject. From the transcriptions of these target words, the examiner completes the assessment with traditional scoring for articulation errors or by analyzing the sound change errors for the presence of phonological processes. Test results enable the examiner to compare the subject's performance with normal-speaking peers, aged 3;0 to 8;11, through the use of the normative data, and to determine appropriate intervention goals.

Dr Lowe writes, "the ALPHA was originally developed so that it could be used to do both a traditional articulation assessment and, if needed, a phonological process assessment. It was the first phonology test to be published that was based on a normative sample. I believe that it is still a useful assessment instrument and have adjusted the forms so that it can be easily downloaded in pdf format. Below are some of the changes from the original forms.

Cover Page

The original ALPHA test form was all on one large 16 x 22 inch sheet that neatly folded into compact size. That was not convenient for downloading, so now there are three (or four) 8 x 11 inch sheets instead. The cover sheet has the traditional identifying information, summary score information, phoneme and process analysis sections. I have added a Consonants Correct score which is just a total of consonants that were targeted and made correctly. From one administration to the next this score should become smaller if the client is making progress. This number could reflect just the sounds listed for the Target words or could also include the sounds listed for the Secondary words which will be described later.

Relational Analysis Form

This form has seven columns. The first column contains the sentence stimuli with the Target Words italicized and bolded. The second column lists the Target Words. The third and fourth columns are for entering the initial and final sound transcriptions. The last three columns are new. In that the ALPHA uses sentence stimuli, I decided that some of the other words in the sentences could also provide the clinician with useful information. These ‘Secondary’ words are listed and the final two columns are for transcription of the indicated sounds in those words. The information from the Secondary words CANNOT be used when applying the ALPHA norms, but do provide additional information about sound production.

Phonological Process Forms

There are two forms for identifying the phonological processes. These were designed to line up with the Target and Secondary word rows on the Relational Analysis Form. One is set up for the Target words and one for the Secondary words. Shaded areas indicate that the process is not likely to occur for the sounds in the associated word. Each column is wide enough so that potential processes for initial sounds can be checked on the left and for final sounds checked on the right. The advantage is that a quick visual inspection will show the clinician positional influences on the use of phonological processes. As with the original ALPHA, you would total all of the checks in the column and write it in at the bottom of the page. Only the processes identified for the Target words can be used with the ALPHA norms.

Manual and Tables

The original manual and tables have also been put into pdf format for easy downloading along with the picture stimuli and an identification matrix. The matrix makes process identification a much easier task and is recommended for those who are new to the ALPHA or to phonological processes in general. The matrix is based on the process definitions used by the ALPHA and would not be appropriate for other tests of phonology.

Sentence Stimuli

The stimulus sentences used for the ALPHA have been placed on two label templates (Avery 5160). If the user desires he or she can download the pictures and labels to create a test booklet so that while the client is looking at the picture stimulus, the clinician will be looking at the associated stimulus sentence."

Robert J Lowe

A graduate of Ohio University, Dr Lowe received his doctorate in speech pathology in 1986. His work experience includes several years as a school clinician in Iowa before beginning university teaching at the University of South Dakota. Since 1985 he has been a professor at Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania where he teaches courses in phonetics, diagnostics, fluency and phonology.

Dr Lowe is author of the ALPHA- R Test of Phonology (Lowe, 2000), a textbook on phonology (Lowe, 1994), a workbook on phonological processes (Lowe, 2002), an expert essay on intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy (Lowe, 2009), co-author of two workbooks for articulation and phonology intervention (Lowe and Weitz, 1992a, 1992b) and author of a text on speech-language pathology and related professions in the public schools (Lowe, 1993).

Dr Lowe has kindly made the ALPHA Test of Phonology freely available, with appropriate acknowledgement, to SLP/SLT clinicians, student clinicians and researchers. Published by LinguiSystems in its first edition in 1986 the ALPHA/ALPHA-R is a normed test that continues to receive enthusiastic and positive feedback from its many users.

References

Lowe, R. J. (1986). Assessment Link between Phonology and Articulation. E. Moline, IL: LinguiSystems.

Lowe, R. J. (2000). Assessment Link between Phonology and Articulation -Revised. Mifflinville, PA: ALPHA Speech & Language Resources.

Lowe, R. J. (2002). Workbook for the identification of phonological processes and distinctive features, 3rd Ed. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Lowe, R. J. (2009). The role of intrinsic motivation in learning of new speech behaviours. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 101-105. OUT OF PRINT

Lowe, R. J. (2015). The role of intrinsic motivation in learning of new speech behaviours. In C. Bowen, Children's speech sound disorders, Second Edition. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 398-401.

Lowe, R. J. & Weitz, J. (1992a). Activities for the remediation of phonological disorders. Dekalb, Ill: Janelle Publications, Inc.

Lowe, R. J. & Weitz, J. (1992b). Picture resources for the remediation of articulation and phonological disorders. Dekalb, IL: Janelle Publications, Inc.


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